(Reminder) Be fair and not biased

“And whenever you give your word (i.e., judge between men or give evidence), say the truth…” [al-An’aam 6:152]

Being fair and not being biased when correcting those who make mistakes

Allah says (interpretation of the meanings):

“And whenever you give your word (i.e., judge between men or give evidence), say the truth…” [al-An’aam 6:152]

“… and when you judge between men, you [should] judge with justice…” [al-Nisa’ 4:58]

The fact that Usaamah ibn Zayd was the beloved of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the son of his beloved [Zayd] did not stop the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) from rebuking him most sternly when he tried to intercede regarding one of the punishments (hudood) prescribed by Allaah. ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) reported that Quraysh were concerned about a woman who stole at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), at the time of the Conquest of Makkah.

They said, ‘Who will speak to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) about her? Who will dare to do this other than Usaamah ibn Zayd, the beloved of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)?’

She was brought to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and Usaamah ibn Zayd spoke to him concerning her. The face of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) changed colour and he said:

‘Are you interceding concerning one of the punishments prescribed by Allaah?’

Usaamah said to him, ‘Pray for forgiveness for me, O Messenger of Allaah.’

When evening came, the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood up and addressed the people. He praised Allaah as He deserves to be praised, then he said:

‘The people who came before you were destroyed because if one of their nobles stole, they would let him go, but if one of the weak among them stole, they would carry out the punishment on him. By the One in Whose hand is my soul, if Faatimah the daughter of Muhammad were to steal, I would cut off her hand.’

Then he ordered that the woman who had stolen should have her hand cut off.”

(The hadith was reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim; this version was narrated by Muslim, no. 1688).

According to a report narrated by al-Nisaa’i from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), she said:

“A woman borrowed some jewellery, claiming that she wanted to lend it to someone else, but she sold it and kept the money. She was brought to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Her family went to Usaamah ibn Zayd, who spoke to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) concerning her.

The face of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) changed colour whilst Usaamah was speaking, then the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him:

‘Are you interceding concerning one of the punishments prescribed by Allaah?’

Usaamah said, ‘Pray for forgiveness for me, O Messenger of Allaah.’

In the evening, the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood up, praised Allaah as He deserves to be praised, then said,

‘The people who came before you were destroyed because if one of their nobles stole, they would let him go, but if one of the weak among them stole, they would carry out the punishment on him. By the One in Whose hand is my soul, if Faatimah the daughter of Muhammad were to steal, I would cut off her hand.’

Then he ordered that the woman’s hand should be cut off.”

(Sunan al-Nisaa’i, al-Mujtabaa, Dar al-Fikr edn., 8/73. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan al-Nisaa’i, no. 4548).

The Prophet’s attitude towards Usaamah (may Allaah be pleased with him) indicates that he was fair and just, and that Islam came before love of people in his view. A person may put up with the personal faults of whoever he wishes, but he has no right to be tolerant or biased towards those whose mistakes transgress the limits set by Islam.

Sometimes, when a relative or friend makes a mistake, a person does not rebuke him as he would a person whom he does not know, so one may see unIslamic bias or discrimination in his dealings because of this, and a person may turn a blind eye to his friend’s mistake while harshly criticizing another person.

[An Arab poet once said:]

“If you are happy with a person, you do not see his mistakes, but if you are angry with him, you see them all.”

This may also be reflected in the way in which actions are interpreted. An action on the part of a person one loves will be taken one way, and the same deed on the part of another person will be taken quite differently.

All of the above applies only when circumstances are the same, otherwise there could be different considerations as we will see below.

Reference: Prophet’s method for correcting people’s mistake


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(Qur’an) Don’t they look at how camels are made?

The 17th verse of the Chapter Al-Gashiyah, which is “Do they not look at the Camels, how they are made?”, mentions an animal that has to be carefully examined and thought about: This is the ‘camel’. In this article, we will study this animal on which the Qur’an invites us to ponder about.

“Do they not look at the Camels, how they are made? And at the Sky, how it is raised high? And at the Mountains, how they are fixed firm? And at the Earth, how it is spread out? Therefore do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish.” [Al-Qur’an 88:17-21]

It’s beyond doubt that all beings reflect the endless Power and Knowledge of their Creator. This fact is expressed in many verses of the Qur’an, constantly emphasizing that everything created by Allah is actually an evidence of belief and a lesson for admonition.

The 17th verse of the Chapter Al-Gashiyah, which is “Do they not look at the Camels, how they are made?”, mentions an animal that has to be carefully examined and thought about: This is the ‘camel’. In this article, we will study this animal on which the Qur’an invites us to ponder about.

The exclusively specific characteristic of the camel is its body structure, which is not effected even in the most severe circumstances. Its body has such features that for many days, it can survive without water and food and can even travel with a bulk of hundreds of kilograms on its back. Many characteristics of the camel constitute evidence that this animal is created particularly for the dry climate conditions, and put into service for the comfort of man. In the Qur’an, it is stated; “Verily, in the alternation of the night and the day, and in all that Allah hath created, in the heavens and the earth, are signs for those who fear Him.” [Al-Qur’an 10:6]

The camel is specially designed for the conditions of the desert. As a matter of fact, each part of the animal’s body has to be investigated in order to understand how it is “made” by Allah.

Feet for all types of land; its feet are donated with two toes connected to each other with a flexible cushion. This structure which enables it to firmly grasp the land is consisted of four fat-balls. These feet are totally proper for all kinds of land conditions. Its nails protect the foot against any potential damages that may occur as a result of blows. Knees are covered with a structure called “callus”, which is composed of skin as hard and thick as horn. When the animal lays down on the hot sands, this calloused structure protects the animal from being defected by the extremely hot sand.

The hump as a food stock; the hump of the camel forms is a mass of fats, and provides nutriment to the animal periodically in times of starvation. With this system, this animal can live 3 weeks without water, whilst it looses 33% of its weight. Under the same severe circumstances, a human being would loose 8% of his weight, but die within 36 hours. Since, he would completely lose the water in his body.

Heat insulating fur; this fur consists of thick and felted hair that does not only protect the body of the animal against cold and hot climatic conditions, but also eliminate the water loss of the body. The Hecin camel can delay the perspiration of its body by means of increasing its body temperature up to 41° C, and thus prevents the water loss. With its thick fur, camels in Asia can survive high temperatures reaching up to +50° C in summer and falling down to -50° C in winter. Head sheltered from the sand; the eye lashes of the camel are designed like two separate combs clamping together. In case of danger, they are automatically closed. With this special design, even a single grain of sand is not let into the eye. Nose and ears are covered with long hairs for protection from sand and dust. Its long neck enables the animal to reach and feed on the leaves, which are 3 meters high from the ground.

In addition to the above features, the camel also has other specialized systems in its body. Actually, each one of these qualities of the animal gives it proficiency in the harsh conditions of the desert. These features may be categorized as below:

Resistance to Thirst and Hunger

Camels can live without food and water for 8 days under temperatures of 50° C. During this period, it looses 22% of its body weight. However, it can survive even if it looses 40% of the water in its body, whilst loosing just 12% would cause a man’s death. Another reason of its endurance against thirst is a mechanism which enables the camel to increase its internal temperature up to 41° C. Thanks to this, the animal keeps the water loss at the minimum level in the extreme hot climates of the desert. Camels can also decrease their internal body temperature down to 30° C in the cold nights of the desert.

Improved Water Utilization Unit

Camels can consume 130 liters of water almost in 10 minutes. This amount is approximately one third of their body weight. Besides, camels also have a mucus structure in their nose, which is 100 times larger in area than the man’s. Every time the animal breathes, air is moisturized by the mucus. When we breathe, we lose 16 mg of water vapor for every litre of air. However, with the structure of the mucus, camels can get use of the moisture in the air in a ratio of 66%.

Maximum Benefit from Food and Water

Most of the animals die when the accumulated urea in their body gets into the blood circulatory system. Yet, camels use this urea produced in their body, by filtering it through the liver continuously. Consequently, they use it as a source of protein and water. Both the blood and cell structures of the camel are specialized for enabling this animal to survive for long periods of time.

Hump is the another aide to the camel. One fifth of the camel’s body is stored as fat in its hump. The storage of the body fat in only one part of the camel’s body, prevents it from losing water all through body. This lets its body to use minimum amount of water. Although a camel with humps can take in 30-50 kilograms of food in a day, it is able to live one month with only 2 kg of grass.

In addition, camels have very strong and rubber like lips that make it easer for them to eat thorns sharp enough to pierce leather. Furthermore, it possesses such a strong digestive system that it can eat everything it comes across with like plastic plates, copper wire and reeds. The four chambered stomach of this wonderful animal gets use of everything, even other than food. It is rather obvious how precious these features of the camels are in such a dry climate.

“Do ye not see that Allah has subjected to your (use) all things in the heavens and on earth, and has made his bounties flow to you in exceeding measure, (both) seen and unseen? Yet there are among men those who dispute about Allah, without knowledge and without guidance, and without a Book to enlighten them!” [Al-Qur’an 31:20]

Now, let us think in the light of these information: Has the camel adapted its own body to the desert conditions on its own? Has it formed its own mucus of the nose or the hump on its back? Or has it designed its own nose and eye structure with protection against windwhirls and storms? Has it arranged its own blood and cell structure based on the principle to prevent waste of water? Has it chosen itself the type of the hair covering its body? Has it converted itself to a ‘desert ship’ on its own?

Just as any other living being, the camel surely cannot execute any of the above listed features in itself. Moreover, it cannot make itself advantageous or beneficial to mankind. The verse in the Qur’an stating, “Do not they look at the camel, how it is created?” explains the creation of this excellent animal in the best way. As the other beings, camel is too, created with many characteristics and then placed on earth as a sign of the excellence of the Creator in creation. While it is created with such superior physical features, it has been given to the service of mankind. On the other hand, mankind is given the responsibility to see similar miracles of creation throughout the whole universe and know the Creator of all beings, Allah .

(Qur’an) Rain in the Qur’an

“Such as remember Allah, standing, sitting, and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth, (and say): Our Lord! Thou createst not this in vain. Glory be to Thee! Preserve us from the doom of Fire.”Al-Qur’an 3:191

Rain is indeed one of the most important factors for life on the earth. Rain is a prerequisite for the permanence of life in a region. Rain, which carries great importance for all living things including human beings, is mentioned in various verses of the Qur’an where substantial information is given about the formation of rain, its proportion and effects. The fact that it was not possible for any of this information to have been discovered at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an shows us that the Qur’an is the word of Allah. Now, let us examine the information given in the Qur’an about rain.

The Proportion of Rain

In the eleventh verse of Surah Az-Zukhruf, rain is defined as water sent down in due measure. The verse is as follows:

“And He who sends down (from time to time) water from the sky in due measure, and We raise to life therewith a land that is dead. Even so will you be raised (from the dead).”Al-Qur’an 43:11

This “measure” mentioned in the verse has to do with a couple of characteristics of rain. First of all, the amount of rain that falls on the earth is always the same. It is estimated that in one second, 16 million tones of water evaporates from the earth. This number is equal to the amount of water that drops on the earth in one second. This means that water continuously circulates in a balanced cycle according to a “measure”.

Another measure related with rain is about its falling speed. The minimum altitude of rain clouds is 1,200 meters. When dropped from this height, an object having the same weight and size as a rain drop, would continuously accelerate and fall on the ground with a speed of 558 km/h. Certainly, any object that hits the ground with that speed would cause big damage. If rain happened to fall in the same way, all harvested lands would be destroyed, residential areas, houses, and cars would be damaged, people would not be able to walk around without taking necessary precautions. What is more, these calculations are made just for clouds of 1,200 meters high, whereas there are also rain clouds at an altitude of 10,000 meters. A rain drop falling from such a height could normally reach a very destructive speed. But this is not how it works; no matter from how high they fall, average speed of rain drops is only 8-10 km/h when they reach the ground. The reason for this is the special form they take. This special form increases the friction effect of the atmosphere and prevents acceleration when the rain drops reach a certain speed “limit”. (Today parachutes are designed by using this technique.)

This is not all about the “measures” of rain. For instance, in the atmospheric layers where it starts to rain, the temperature may fall so low as 400C degrees. Despite this, rain drops never turn into ice particles. (This would certainly mean a fatal threat for the living things on the earth). The reason is that the water in the atmosphere is pure water. As known, pure water hardly freezes even in very low temperatures.

The Formation of Rain

How rain forms remained a great mystery for people for a long time. Only after air radars were discovered, could it have been possible to learn by which stages rain formed. The formation of rain takes place in three stages: First, the “raw material” of rain rises up in the air. Later, clouds are formed and lastly, rain drops appear. These stages are clearly defined in the Qur’an in which precise information was given about the formation of rain centuries in advance;

“It is Allah Who sends the Winds, and they raise the Clouds: then does He spread them in the sky as He wills, and break them into fragments, until you see rain-drops issue from the midst thereof: then when He has made them reach such of his servants as He wills behold, they do rejoice!”

Now, let us look at the three stages mentioned in the verse:

  1. 1st Stage: “It is Allah Who sends the winds … “ Countless air bubbles formed by the foaming in the oceans continuously burst and cause water particles to be ejected towards the sky. These particles which are rich in salt, are then carried away by winds and move upwards in the atmosphere.These particles which are called aerosols form clouds by collecting around themselves the water vapor -that again ascends from the seas – as tiny drops, by a mechanism called “water trap”.
  2. 2nd Stage : ” … and they raise the Clouds: then does He spread them in the sky as He wills, and break them into fragments … The clouds form from the water vapor that condenses around the salt crystals or the dust particles in the air. Because the water drops in these are very small (with a diameter between 0.01 and 0.02mm), the clouds are suspended in the air and they spread in the sky. Thus the sky is covered with clouds.
  3. 3rd Stage : ” … until you see rain-drops issue from the midst thereof.” Water particles that surround salt crystals and dust particles thicken and form rain drops. So, the drops which become heavier than air depart from the clouds, and start to fall on the ground as rain.

The conclusion to be arrived here is that; Every stage in the formation of rain is told in the verses of the Qur’an. Furthermore, these stages are explained in the order they take place … Just like in many other natural phenomena in the world, it is again the Qur’an that provides the most correct explanation about this phenomena as well, and more, that has announced these facts to people centuries before they were discovered by science.

Life Given to a Dead Land

In the Qur’an, a lot of verses call our attention to a particular function of rain, which is “giving life to a dead land”. It is stated in a verse as:

“We send down pure water from the sky. That with it We may give life to a dead land, and slake the thirst of things We have created, cattle and men in great numbers.”Al-Qur’an 25:48- 49

In addition to furnishing the earth with water, rain also has a fertilization effect. Rain drops that reach the clouds after being evaporated from the seas, contain certain substances “that will give life” to a dead land. These “life-giving” drops are called “surface tension drops”. Surface tension drops form on the top level of the sea surface which is called the micro layer by biologists. In this layer, which is thinner than one tenth of a millimeter, there are many organic leftovers caused from the pollution of microscopic algaes and zooplanktons. Some of these leftovers select and collect within themselves some elements which are very rare in sea water such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and some heavy metals like copper, zinc, cobalt and lead. These “fertilizer” laden drops are lifted up into the sky by the winds and after a while they drop on the ground inside the rain drops. Seeds and plants on the earth find numerous metallic salts and elements essential for their growth here in these rain drops. This event is informed in another verse of the Qur’an as follows:

“And We send down from the sky rain chartered with blessing, and We produce therewith gardens and grain for harvests.”Al-Qur’an 50:9

Salts that fall with rain are small examples of some fertilizers (calcium, magnesium, potassium etc.) used for increasing fertility. The heavy metals found in these types of aerosols, on the other hand, are other elements that increase fertility in the development and production of plants. Forests also develop and are fed with the help of these sea-originated aerosols. In this way, 150 million tons of fertilizer falls on the total surface of lands every year. If there was not a natural fertilization like this, there would be very little vegetation on the earth, and the ecological balance would be damaged. What is more interesting is that this truth, which could only be discovered by modern science, was informed by Allah in the Qur’an centuries ago.


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(Qur’an & Science) What does scientist said about the Qur’an?

The only answer is that the Qur’an is the word of God Almighty.

Professor Emeritus Keith L. Moore

One of the world’s most prominent scientists in the fields of anatomy and embryology and is the author of the book entitled ‘The Developing Human’, which has been translated into eight languages. Dr. Keith Moore is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. There, he was Associate Dean of Basic Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine and for 8 years was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy. In 2007, Professor Moore became the first recipient of the Henry Gray/Elsevier Distinguished Educator Award, The American Association of Anatomists’ (AAA) highest award for human anatomy education. Most recently in 2012, Prof. Moore received the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Medal – a commemorative medal to honor significant contributions and achievements by Canadians.

Professor Moore said,

“….Because the staging of human embryos is complex, owing to the continuous process of change during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunnah. The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge. The intensive studies of the Qur’an and Hadith [reliably transmitted reports of the Prophet Muhammad] in the last four years have revealed a system for classifying human embryos that is amazing since it was recorded in the 7th Century C.E. Although Aristotle, the founder of the science of embryology, realized that chick embryos developed in stages from his studies of hen’s eggs in the fourth century B.C., he did not give any details about these stages.

As far as it is known from the history of embryology, little was known about the staging and classification of human embryos until the twentieth century. For this reason, the descriptions of the human embryo in the Qur’an cannot be based on scientific knowledge in the seventh century. The only reasonable conclusion is: these descriptions were revealed to Muhammad from God. He could not have known such details because he was an illiterate man with absolutely no scientific training.” [1]

Consequently, Professor Moore was asked the following question: “Does this mean that you believe that the Qur’an is the word of God?” He replied: “I find no difficulty in accepting this.”[2]

Professor Moore consulted a number of embryologists for their opinions:

“…I was invited to Saudi Arabia to lecture on embryology at King Abdul Azziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia… and while I was there, at my suggestion, invited Dr. [T.V.N] Persaud and Dr. [E. Marshall] Johnson to come to Saudi Arabia. And they [the Embryology Committee] asked them the same questions, and I purposefully didn’t tell them my interpretations, I wanted them to give their own. So they did and their answers were similar to mine…Dr. Johnson is one of the most outstanding embryologist and teratologist in the United States. We didn’t just pick anyone, I picked the best. And in Canada, Dr. Persaud at the University of Manitoba, where I spent twenty years, is also an outstanding embryologist who has three doctors degrees… so I picked the very best. And then, when I started thinking about other embryologists around the world, we brought in
Dr. [Robert] Edwards from Cambridge [world-renowned for his early work on in vitro fertilization]… so we invited him to Saudi Arabia and again he was asked the same questions and they [the Embryology Committee] got essentially the same answers.… [and] one of my colleagues in Kyoto, Japan.…he didn’t go to Saudi Arabia, [and] he has been consulted and so on. So we have consulted embryologists around the world for their opinions on these statements in the Qur’an, and it’s clear from what Dr. Persaud has said and from all of our work in this area that these statements [in the Qur’an] are correct.”[3]

Professor Persaud has included some Qur’anic verses and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad in some of his books.

Dr. E. Marshall Johnson

Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Developmental Biology at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. There, for 22 years he was Professor of Anatomy, the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy, and the Director of the Daniel Baugh Institute. He was also the President of the Teratology Society. He has authored more than 200 publications. In 1981, during the Seventh Medical Conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia,
Professor Johnson said in the presentation of his research paper:

“Summary: The Qur’an describes not only the development of external form, but emphasizes also the internal stages, the stages inside the embryo, of its creation and development, emphasizing major events recognized by contemporary science.”

Also he said: “As a scientist, I can only deal with things which I can specifically see. I can understand embryology and developmental biology. I can understand the words that are translated to me from the Qur’an. As I gave the example before, if I were to transpose myself into that era, knowing what I knew today and describing things, I could not describe the things which were described.

“I see no evidence for the fact to refute the concept that this individual, Muhammad, had to be developing this information from some place. So I see nothing here in conflict with the concept that divine intervention was involved in what he was able to write.”[4]

Dr. Yoshihide Kozai

Professor Emeritus at Tokyo University, Hongo, Tokyo, Japan, and was the Director of the National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan. He said:

“I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical facts in [the] Qur’an, and for us the modern astronomers have been studying very small pieces of the universe. We’ve concentrated our efforts for understanding of [a] very small part.

Because by using telescopes, we can see only very few parts [of] the sky without thinking [about the] whole universe. So, by reading [the] Qur’an and by answering the questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the universe.”

Professor Tejatat Tejasen

The Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Previously, he was the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the same university. During the Eighth Saudi Medical Conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Professor Tejasen stood up and said:

“During the last three years, I became interested in the Qur’an . . . . From my study and what I have learned from this conference, I believe that everything that has been recorded in the Qur’an fourteen hundred years ago must be the truth, that can be proved by the scientific means.

Since the Prophet Muhammad could neither read nor write, Muhammad must be a messenger who relayed this truth, which was revealed to him as an enlightenment by the one who is eligible [as the] creator. This creator must be God.

Therefore, I think this is the time to say La ilaha illa Allah, there is no diety to worship except God, Muhammadur rasoolu Allah, Muhammad is Messenger [Prophet] of Allah [God]. Lastly, I must congratulate for the excellent and highly successful arrangement for this conference . . . . I have gained not only from the scientific point of view and religious point of view but also the great chance of meeting many well-known scientists and making many new friends among the participants. The most precious thing of all that I have gained by coming to this place is La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammadur rasoolu Allah, and to have become a Muslim.”[5]

After all these examples we have seen about the scientific miracles in the Holy Qur’an, let us ask ourselves these questions:

Could it be just a coincidence that all this recently discovered scientific information from different fields was mentioned in the Qur’an, which was revealed fourteen centuries ago? Could this Qur’an have been authored by Muhammad or by any other human being? How could Prophet Muhammad have possibly known all this 1,400 years ago, when scientists have only recently discovered this using advanced equipment and powerful microscopes which did not exist at that time?

The only answer is that the Qur’an is the word of God Almighty.

Reference:

  1. This is the Truth – http://www.islam-guide.com/truth.htm
  2. Ibid
  3. Prof. Moore lecture to Muslim Students Association, “Embryology in the Qur’an with Drs. Persaud, Moore and Johnson [1988]” , http://youtu.be/ZJRRhfk5xUI?t=37m32s
  4. Taken from the video documentary, ‘This is Truth.’
  5. Taken from the video documentary, ‘This is Truth.’

From : The scientific truth in the Qur’an


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(Quran & Science) The Qur’an on Human Embryonic Development

“Had he not been a sperm from semen emitted?” (75:37)

Historic Preamble

Western physicians, during the 16th century, believed that a human being’s origin began entirely in the male’s semen. They envisaged that inside the male semen was a minuscule, fully formed human being who grew larger once implanted into the womb of the mother.

figure 1

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the previously held view was replaced by the opinion that the ‘minuscule’ human instead formed out of the woman’s menstrual blood coagulating [thickening] and that the male semen was
merely an activating agent. It was not until 1775, that Italian scientist Spallanzi established that both the male semen and female ovum were required to form the human embryo.

It was also not until modern times, with the help of the electron microscope, that scientists discovered the existence of chromosomes and genes and that human embryonic development takes place in successive distinct stages.

The terminology used to describe human development in the Qur’an is characterized by descriptiveness and accuracy. Until recently these statements were not fully appreciated, since they referred to details in human development which were scientifically unknown in earlier times.

In the Qur’an, God mentions that human embryonic development passes through a number of distinct stages:

Surah Al-Mukminun Verse 13-14

The stages in the Ayah [verse] can be summarised as follows:

Stage 1: The Nutfah

The word Nutfah literally means ‘a single drop’ of fluid whereas Manii means ‘semen’. God says,

Surah Al-Qiyamah Verse 37 (75:37)

“Had he not been a sperm from semen emitted?” (75:37)

In the Qur’an and hadith, Nutfah is used in 3 different but related contexts:

  1. The male nutfah (Qur’an 75:36)
  2. The female Nutfah
  3. Nutfah Amshaj – mixed of mingled male and female Nutfah (Qur’an 76:2)
The Male Nutfah
figure 2- Complete diagram of a human spermatozoa

The word Nutfah was mentioned 12 different times in the Qur’an and the word Manii was mentioned thrice. In the male context, the Nutfah is a single particles from the Manii when it is ejaculated – i.e. a single cell (sperm) from amongst the 200-300 million sperm cells. Before the 16th century, writings on embryonic development did not distinguish the constituent parts of the semen in its role of fertilization.

(Quran 75:36-40 & Qur’an 53:45-46)

In these Ayaat [verses], there are a lot of facts that require careful consideration. We know the sex of the newborn is determined by the sperm – it is definitively stated that the male and female are fashioned from a sperm-drop from the semen that has been ejaculated. If a sperm carrying an X chromosome fertilizes an ovum [which always contains an X chromosome], the offspring will be a girl, while if the fertilization sperm contains a Y chromosome, the offspring will be a boy.

The Qur’an has stated this fact 1,400 years ago, before anybody knew anything about X and Y chromosomes.

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The Female Nutfah
figure 3

The Female Nutfah [ovum] per se is not mentioned explicitly in the Qur’an, but is inferred in the term Nutfah Amshaj – i.e. mingled from both male and female [refer
to Qur’an 76:2]. However, it is clearly stated in the Hadith from the Prophet. A Jew came to the Prophet and asked, ‘O Muhammad. Tell me from what thing man is created.’ The Prophet said, ‘O Jew, from both Male and Female Nutfah, man is created.’ (ref: Musnad Ahmad. The complete narration has been declared da’eef [contains weakness according to the rules of hadeeth verification] by Ahmad Shakir)

This is a very astonishing revelation, as it is only recently that we came to know that both male and female cells [sperm and ovum] join together to form the human zygote – a fact not known before the 19th century.

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The Role of Genes

In a single male Nutfah [sperm cell], which measures 60 microns [1 micron = 1/1000 mm], there are 23 chromosomes – long spiral double strand helices. They contain the genes which determine every type of characteristic the body has, like hair color, skin type, etc.

figure 4

Hence, it is within this Nutfah that God has determined and destined all the physical characteristics that an individual has. It is amazing that the description of these realities are so accurately stated by God in the Qur’an.

The Prophet said, ‘God has ordained an angel that accompanies the different stages of development of the Nutfah. The ‘Alaqah, the Mudgha and in every stage he asks God, ‘O God, what to do next?’ If God determines its full development, the angel asks, ‘Is it a boy or a girl? Happy or unhappy,
his livelihood and his life span. All is written [determined] while he is in the mother’s womb.’ [Bukhari]

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Stage 2: The ‘Alaqah Stage
Linguistic Analysis

According to many Arabic dictionaries, the word ‘alaqah includes the following meanings:

  1. Attached and hanging to something,
  2. Blood clot,
  3. Leech.
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‘Alaqah as ‘attached and hanging’

As we see in Figure 15, the embryo [which is represented by the bi-laminar embryonic disc] is attached to the placenta and is hanging or suspended in the chorionic cavity by the connecting stalk. This is in agreement with the meaning of the word ‘alaqah as “attached and hanging to something”.

figure 5 – Photomicrophs of longitudinal sections of an implanted embryo at approximately 14 days. High-power view (A-95). The embryo is represented by the bilaminar embryonic disc composed of epiblast and hypoblast. [From Nishimura H [ed]: Atlas of human prenatal histology. Tokyo, Igaku-Shoin,1983] The embryo is now attached to the primitive placenta and is suspended or hanging via the ‘connecting stalk’. (Kareem, E., Embryology in the Qur’an: The Alaqah Stage)
figure 6 – We can see in this diagram the suspension of an embryo during the ‘alaqah stage in the womb [uterus] of the mother. Moore and Persaud, The Developing Human, 5th ed., p.66

‘Alaqah as ‘blood clot’

figure 7 – Diagram of the primordial cardiovascular system in an embryo of approximately 21 days, viewed from the left side during the ‘alaqah stage. The external appearance of the embryo and its sacs is similar to that of a blood clot, due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood in the embryo and the chorion. The umbilical vein carries well-oxygenated blood and nutrients from the chorion sac to the embryo. The umbilical arteries carry poorly oxygenated blood and waste products from the embryo to the chorion. [From Moore and Persaud [2007].

The figure above shows a diagram of the primitive cardiovascular system in an embryo of about 21 days. During this stage we find that the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs is similar to that of a blood clot.

“Implantation begins at about the 6th to 7th day after fertilization. The part of the blastocyst projecting into the uterine cavity remains relatively thin. The syntrophoblast contains a proteolytic enzyme which causes destruction of the endometrial cells so that that the blastocyst sinks deeper and deeper into the uterine mucosa…The final deficiency in the endometrium is sealed off by a blood or fibrin clot, overlying the blastocyst. This cover is called the operculum. By about 10 to 12 days after fertilization, the blastocyst is completely encased in the endometrium and thus, implantation is complete.” [1]

The blood, though fluid, does not circulate until the end of the third week. On the 21st day, the heart of the embryo connects with the blood vessels in the embryo, the connecting stalk, the chorion and the umbilical vesicle [yolk sac], and the blood starts to circulate and the heart begins to beat. Thus, the embryo takes the appearance of a blood clot even though its blood is fluid.

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‘Alaqah as ‘leech’

Scholars, linguists and dictionaries have all mentioned one of the meanings of ‘alaqah as a leech[2]. The fourteenth century dictionary Lisan al-‘Arab states that “ ‘alaqah refers to a worm living in the water that sucks blood, the plural of which is ‘alaq” [3] and in the dictionary of al-Qamus al-Muhit that ‘alaq is “a small creature of water that sucks blood [a leech].”[4] The word ‘alaqah also occurs in several languages related to Arabic. In Hebrew there is aluqah,alûqah [or alukah][5], the generic name for any blood-sucking worm or leech. And in Aramaic and Syriac there are words with apparently similar meanings. In Ad-Damiri’s Arabic zoological lexicon, Hayat al-Hayawan [The Life of the Animals, 1372 C.E.], there is an article on the leech [‘alaq][6] and in Ibn Wahshiya’s Kitab al-Sumum [The Book on Poisons, c. 950 C.E.] there is the treatment for the one who has swallowed a leech [‘alaq].[7]

A popular ninth century Christian polemic against Islam claims that Muslims believe that “God created man from a leech” based on the work of Nicetas of Byzantium. Nicetas, who wrote between 842 and 867 C.E., had a copy of the Qur’an in Greek translation which he made use of to
identify the tenets of Islam. His Greek translation renders both ‘alaq and ‘alaqah as bdella [`abccd], meaning “leech”.[8]

Finally, The Qur’an: an Encyclopedia has an entry for ‘alaq that also mentions the same meanings: “The linguistic definition of alaq [singular alaqa] is ‘leech’, ‘medicinal leech’, ‘[coagulated] blood’, ‘blood clot’, or ‘the early stage of the embryo’.[9]

figure 8 – Drawings illustrating the similarities in appearance between a human embryo and a leech [‘alaqah]. A, shows a lateral view of an embryo [size 2.5- 3.0mm] at days 24 to 25 during folding, showing the large forebrain and the ventral position of the heart [from Moore &
Persaud: The Developing Human 9th Edition [2013]. B, shows a drawing of a leech.

Note the leech-like appearance of the
human embryo at this stage.

A leech is an apt description of the early human embryo. The embryo clings to the endometrium or lining of the uterus [day 7] just as a leech clings to the skin. The embryo is also surrounded by amniotic fluid just as the leech is surrounded by water. If we consider the literal meaning of “leech” for ‘alaqah, we find that during the third week, the embryo loses its round shape and elongates until it takes the shape of a leech.

The figures above clearly indicate that the shape of the embryo does in fact resemble a leech. At this stage the cardiovascular system has started to appear and the embryo is now dependent upon the maternal blood for its nutrition like a leech which feeds on the blood of others.[10]

figure 9 – A, shows a lateral view of an embryo [size 2.5- 3.0mm] at days 24 to 25 [Modified from Moore & Persaud: The Developing Human 8th Edition]. B, Hirudo medicinalis,
medicinal leech C, Scanning electron micrograph of an embryo at Week 4, 26 – 30 days [Professor Kathy Sulik, The University of North Carolina]. Note the leech-like
appearance of the human embryos at this stage.

In the BBC television series, The Human Body: The Incredible Journey from Birth to Death, Professor Robert Winston [11] also describes the embryo in a similar way. Prof. Winston demonstrates how the embryo obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother by comparing it with a leech which feeds on the blood of others,

“[The leech] takes whatever it needs to live by sucking the blood of whatever it can latch onto; in this case that’s me! As it sucks my blood, it takes from it all that it needs to live, it literally lives off me and the whole of pregnancy is shaped by a similar kind of parasitic relationship…it does raid her blood for the raw materials it needs to grow. From the word go, both leech and embryo are out for themselves.”[12]

Similarly, in Anatomy Demystified, the early embryo is described as worm-like in appearance which is nourished by the mother’s maternal blood supply, “Another membrane becomes the yolk sac, which provides nourishment for the early embryo. By 24 days, a connecting stalk appears in the middle of the now worm-like body.” [13]

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A segmented body like a leech

The body of the leech is divided into a number of segments which gives rise to a ringed appearance of the body, hence the name “ringed worms.”[4] The human embryo is also segmented just like a leech or worm as Professor Peter Nathanielsz describes in A Time to be Born: The Life of the Unborn Child, “By the end of the third week the embryo has undergone segmentation, rather like an earth worm, and now consists of zones like stacked circular tires.”[5]

These layers curl to form a tube-like structure which Anthony Smith, in The Human Body, also likens to a worm, “the early embryo is like a worm, with a gut running from one end to the other, an outer covering also running from end to end and a central layer filling the space between the two.”[6] Ted Zerucha in Human Development also describes the gut of the embryo as a tube, “Running through the body, along the anterior-posterior axis, is the gut. The gut is essentially a tube that runs from the mouth, through the digestive system, to the anus.” [7] The tube-like depiction of the embryo’s gut is not unlike that of an annelid as described in The Columbia Encyclopedia, “The digestive system of annelids consists of an unsegmented gut that runs through the middle of the body from the mouth, located on the underside of the head, to the anus, which is on the pygidium [the posterior terminal region].”[8]

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Internal structure of a leech

figure 10 – A, Ventral dissection showing the internal anatomical structure of a leech. [From J.G. Nicholls and D. Van Essen. The nervous system of the leech, 1974, Scientific American 230:38-48]. B, Dorsal view of a 13-somite embryo at approximately 24 days, actual size 3.0mm. [From Professor Hideo Nishimura, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan]. Note the remarkable similarity in appearance between the human embryo and the internal structure of the leech.

If we examine the anatomy of the leech we find that the appearance of its internal structures is also similar to that of the human embryo:

Figure 11 – Dorsal views of embryos during the third and fourth weeks. A, Dorsal view of a 5-somite embryo, actual size 2.5mm. B, Dorsal view of an older eight-somite embryo, actual size 3.0mm. C, Dorsal view of a 13-somite embryo at approximately 24 days, actual size 3.0mm [Photographs from Professor Hideo Nishimura, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan]. D, The anatomical structure of the leech [Illustrated by James Rawlins Johnson, A Treatise on the Medicinal Leech, London, 1816. [Rare – In process] UCLA Biomedical Library: History and Special Collections for the Sciences].
  • Figure 10 – A shows a ventral view of a dissected medicinal leech. Note how the body is made up of a number of similar segments which resemble the somites in human embryos.
  • Figure 10- B shows an embryo at 24-25 days. The actual size of the embryo at this stage is just 3.0mm.
  • Figure 11 A-C showing dorsal views of embryos during the third and fourth weeks.
  • Figure 11 – D Shows of the internal structure of the leech. Note the remarkable similarity
  • in appearance between the embryos and the anatomy of the leech.
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Prevention of blood-clotting

A striking similarity between the leech and the embryo is the way in which enzymes are released to facilitate easy blood-flow and the prevention of the clotting of blood. As the embryo draws nourishment [leech-like] from the mother’s blood, the anticoagulant enzyme, Thrombomodulin, [TM] prevents the blood clotting. In the leech, the protein that serves the same function is called Hirudin.

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Summary of ‘Alaqah stage

The Qur’anic term alaqah is a comprehensive expression for the second stage of embryonic development that descriptively encompasses the primary external and internal features. In this one word, the general shape of the embryo as a leech is described, the internal events such as the formation of blood and closed vessels are described, and the attachment of the embryo to the placenta is also brought to mind.

The similarity between the embryo and leech is remarkable:

  • the external shape of the leech resembles an embryo at 22-25 days
  • the internal structure of the leech resembles an embryo of 22-26 days
  • the embryo clings to the lining of the uterus in a similar way to a leech that clings to the skin,
  • the embryo obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, like the leech which feeds on the blood of others,
  • the embryo has a segmented body like a worm or leech,
  • the early embryo further resembles a leech in that it has a tube-like gut running from one
  • end to the other.

The Qur’anic term alaqah refers to the embryo when it is extremely small. The ‘alaqah is just 0.7- 3.0mm in length. Due to the small sizes involved, scientists could not have recognised the detailed features of the alaqah stage until the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.

Prof. Keith L. Moore concludes that it is, “remarkable how much the embryo of 23-24 days resembles a leech. As there were no microscopes or lenses available in the 7th century, doctors would not have known that the human embryo had this leech-like appearance. In the early part of the fourth week, the embryo is just visible to the unaided eye because it is smaller than a kernel of wheat.”[20]

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Stage 3: Mudghah stage

Figure 12: Photograph of embryo at the end of the ‘alaqah stage [age 24 to 25 days]. Ten pairs of the 13 pairs of somites are easily recognized, but the embryo is still relatively straight and has a leech-like appearance.

The embryo at 24-25 days is finishing the ‘alaqah stage. It changes into the mudghah stage at 26-27 days. The transformation from ‘alaqah to mudghah is in fact very rapid, and during the last day or two of the ‘alaqah stage, the embryo is beginning to develop some of the characteristics of the mudghah, e.g. the somites begin to appear and become a distinct feature of this stage.

One of the meanings of the word mudghah is “something that is chewed by teeth.” If one were to take a piece of gum and chew it in his or her mouth and then compare it with an embryo at the mudghah stage, we would conclude that the embryo at the mudghah stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance. This is because of the somites at the back of the embryo that “somewhat resemble teeth-marks in a chewed substance.”[21]

Figure 13 : Top left photograph of an embryo at the mudghah stage [28 days old]. The embryo at this stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance, because the somites at the back of the embryo somewhat resemble teeth marks in a chewed substance. The actual size of the embryo is 4 mm [22]
Figure 14: When comparing the appearance of an embryo at the mudghah stage with a piece of gum that has been chewed, we find similarity between the two.
A. Drawing of an embryo at the mudghah stage. We can see here the somites at the back of the embryo that look like teeth marks. [Moore and Persaud, The Developing Human, 5th ed., p. 79.]
B. Photograph of a piece of gum that has been chewed.

The appearance of the somites or “imprints” changes continuously, just as the teeth imprint changes on a chewed substance with each act of chewing. The embryo changes its overall shape, but the structures derived from the somites remain. Just as a substance acquires furrows, swellings and a corrugated surface as it is being chewed, so does the appearance of the embryo.

The embryo turns in its position due to the modifications in its centre of gravity with new tissue formation, similar to the turning of a substance with chewing.

Figure 15: Human embryo day 32 with 35 somites. The embryo is about 7.0 mm in length. Note the indentations that are identified between somites, and with these indentations, the embryo resembles a chewed substance in its external appearance.

In Figure 15, the embryo looks somewhat like a chewed lump. The chewed appearance results from the somites which resemble teeth marks. The somites [cuboidal blocks of mesodermal tissue] represent the beginnings or primordia of the vertebrae. By the 3rd week of human embryonic development, about 38 pairs somites form. By the 5th week there are 42-44 pairs of somites. Most of the axial skeleton [skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum] and skeletal muscles will be derived from these somites.[23]

As there were no microscopes available in the 7th century C.E., people would not have known that the human embryo had this chewed-like appearance. Professor Marshall Johnson states:

“You have to be really careful on what is the definition of ‘seeing’. I can see a piece of dandruff on this tabletop; I can just barely make it out because this is a nice black surface [but] I can see no detail in it. If I want to see detail in it then I need some sort of visual aid, something to aid my vision, I need a magnifying glass, I need a microscope. So I might be able to see a piece of dandruff, but to see any detail in it as is described in the Qur’an, I need an instrument that wasn’t developed until the 1700s.”

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Stage 4: Bone Formation [Idham]

God continues, “…and We made [from] the lump [mudghah], bones, and We covered the bones with flesh” [23:14]. The mudghah or somite embryo is fashioned into bones which are clothed with flesh.

Hamilton, Boyd and Mossman write that “the somites are the bases from which the greater part of the axial skeleton and musculature develop.”[24]

The timing of this phase has been mentioned in the following statement of the Prophet Muhammad, “When 42 nights [i.e. 6 weeks] have passed from the time of the nutfah [time of conception], God sends an angel to it, who shapes it and makes its ears, eyes, skin, muscles and bones…”[25]

“Before the 42nd day, it is difficult to distinguish the human embryo from the embryos of many animals, but at this time it becomes clearly distinguishable in its appearance.”[26] The formation of the skeleton gives the embryo its human shape.

Figure 16: Human embryo at about days 50-51 days
[Ulrich Drews, Color Atlas of Embryology, 1995]

In the 6th week the cartilaginous skeleton begins to form and the embryo acquires a soft skeleton [as we see in figure 16.

“Formation of bone does not begin uniformly throughout the body. Rather, there is a sequential appearance of bony tissue. However, in the 7th week the spreading development of the skeleton occurs. Bone development in the limbs commences in the limb buds from mesochymal cells. Primary ossification centres appear in the femur during week 7 and in the sternum [breast bone] and the maxilla [upper jaw] in weeks 8-9.”[27]

Stage 5: Clothing the Bones with Flesh [Lahm]

We covered the bones with [lahm] flesh” [23:14]. In the Fundamentals
of Human Embryology, it is noted that, “Soon after the cartilaginous models of the bones have been established, the myogenic cells, which have now become myoblasts, aggregate to form muscle masses on the ventral [front] and dorsal [back or posterior] aspects of the limbs.”[28] Although precursor cells [myoblasts, or primitive muscle cells] are present adjacent to developing bone, “differentiation into skeletal muscle attachments occur after the ossification process in the shaft and ends of the bones has begun.”

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Conclusion

It is clear from the preceding pages that God, in the Qur’an, gives a detailed account of the development of the human embryo. Firstly, it accurately describes the main stages of development. Each word describes the characteristic of a specific stage and its morphological and physiological identity. Secondly, it describes the sequence of these events in the same chronological order as discovered by the electron microscope.

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Reference:

  1. Allan, J., & Kramer, B. The Fundamentals of Human Embryology, [2nd ed.], p. 23: Wits University Press – as quoted by Kareem, E., Embryology in the Qur’an: The Alaqah Stage
  2. This section is an edited version of Kareem, E., Embryology in the Qur’an: The Alaqah Stage, http://www.islampapers.com.
  3. Ibn Mansur, in Lisan al-‘Arab, Dar $adir, Beirut, n.d., vol. 10, pp 261-268; as cited in Zindani et al. [1994, p. 68].
  4. Al-Qamus al-Mui, vol. 3, p 275 as cited in Zindani et al. [1994, p. 68].
  5. The leech [alûqah] has two daughters: Give and Give.” Proverbs 30:15 [ESV]. Hebrew alûqah meaning a leech. [Blue Letter Bible] Although the Hebrew word is translated leech in most versions of the Bible, there has been much dispute whether this is the proper meaning. Recourse is therefore to the Arabic language – See Kaltner, The Use of Arabic in Biblical Hebrew Lexicography: Catholic Biblical Association of America. [1996, pp. 86-87].
  6. Kitab ayat al-ayawan [The Book of the Lives of the Animals] finished in 1372 C.E. as mentioned in De Somogyi [1950, p. 42].
  7. Ibn Wahshiya’s Book on Poisons c.950 C.E. Known under various titles: Kitab al-Shanaq fi al-Sumum wa’altiryaq, Kitab al-Sumum wa’al-tiryaqat, and al-Sumum wadaf‘ madarrha. Levey [1966, p. 84].
  8. “Nicetas accuses the Qur’an of teaching that man comes from a leech [Confutatio1, lines 90–92]: The phrase is then picked up by Zigabenos, who finds it absurd…” Simelidis [2011, pp. 900-902] The Byzantine Understanding of the Quranic Term al-amad and the Greek Translation of the Qur’an. Speculum, 86(04), 887-913.
  9. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Al-Qur’an Al-‘Azim, p. 242 (1st ed. Vol. 3). 1980. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Al-Fikr.
  10. Sahin, H. “Alaq” p. 27. In O. Leaman [Ed.] [2006], The Qur’an: An Encyclopedia: Routledge.
  11. The umbilical vein carries well-oxygenated blood and nutrients from the chorion sac to the embryo. The arteries carry poorly oxygenated blood and waste products to the chorionic villi for transfer to the mother’s blood
  12. Prof. Robert Winston is Professor of Science and Society and Emeritus Professor of Fertility Studies at Imperial College, London.
  13. Prof Winston in The Human Body: The Incredible Journey from Birth to Death, BBC Woldwide [1998].
  14. Layman, D. P., Anatomy Demystified, p. 366, [2004] New York: McGraw-Hill Professional; London: McGraw-Hill.
  15. Garwood, P. R., & Campbell, A. [2007]. “Segmented Worms”. The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life. Oxford Reference Online.
  16. Nathanielsz [1994, p. 22]. Peter W. Nathanielsz is a Professor at the Laboratory for Pregnancy and Newborn Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA. “Professor Nathanielsz was amongst the handful of pioneers who assisted at the birth about thirty years ago of the new discipline of fetology and has remained at the forefront of what is now an enormous field. His laboratory has contributed many of the technical advances that now allow the most intimate details of fetal life to be examined with a precision equal to that of a cosmologists’ radio-telescope.”
  17. Smith, The Human Body: The Incredible Journey from Birth to Death, p. 38.
  18. Zerucha, T., Human Development, p. 52.
  19. “Annelida” in The Columbia Encyclopedia [2008].
  20. Moore, K. L., A Scientist’s Interpretation of References to Embryology in the Qur’an.
  21. Moore and Persaud, The Developing Human, 5th ed., p. 8.
  22. Moore and Persaud, The Developing Human, 5th ed., p. 82 – from Professor Hideo Nishimura, Kyoto University, Japan.
  23. This section is an edited version of Kareem, E., Embryology in the Qur’an: The Mudghah Stage and Some observations on the mudghah (chewed-like) stage of human development, http://www.islampapers.com.
  24. As quoted in Kareem, E., Some observations on the mudghah stage of human development, http://www.islampapers.com.
  25. Hamilton, Boyd, Mossman, Human Embryology, 4th Edition, as quoted in Albar, M.Ali, Human Development as revealed in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith, p. 79.
  26. Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Qadr.
  27. G.C. Goeringer, A. A. Zindani, M. A. Ahmed, Embryology in the Qur’an: Bone and Muscle Development, http://www.islampapers.com.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Allan, J., and Kramer, B., The Fundamentals of Human Embryology, 2nd Edition, Wits University Press, 2010, p. 148.
  30. G.C. Goeringer, A. A. Zindani, M. A. Ahmed, Embryology in the Qur’an: Bone and Muscle Development, http://www.islampapers.com.

From : Scientific Truth in the Qur’an

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(Qur’an & Science) Behavioral Patterns of Species are like Humans

“And there is no creature on [or within] the earth or bird that flies with its wings except [that they are] communities like you…” (6:38)

Surah Al-an’am verse 38

“And there is no creature on [or within] the earth or bird that flies with its wings except [that they are] communities like you…” (6:38)

Key words – ‘communities like you [i.e. humans]’ – Here the Creator informs us that the community structure and behavioral patterns of every single set of species in existence is up to certain extend similar to us.

Sufyan ibn Uyaynah, an early Muslim scholar, said, “there is no human being on Earth who does not resemble animals in some way…some run like wolves, some bark like dogs and some flaunt themselves like peacocks. Some people resemble pigs in that if you offer them good food they will not touch it, but if a man gets up from defecating, they will come and roll in it. Hence, you find some people who, if they hear fifty words of wisdom they will not remember anything of that, but if a man does one thing wrong, that will stay in their memory.”

The Qur’an describes the Creator as –

Surah Taha verse 50 (20:50)

“…He who gave everything its creation and then guided [it].”(20:50)

Note: every single entity – From the stars in the galaxies to every living species, to every different type of cell in an organism to the molecular level of an atom – every single entity has its function and role that is inherent within it – i.e. created and then guided.

Those who study how species behave, will know that in their own ecosystems, every animal from the lion, the snake to the butterfly – each of them has been born with inherent and instinctive patterns of behaviour that drives and guides them in all aspects of their lives from seeking food to seeking a mate.

Ref: Scientific truth in the holy Qur’an


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(Quran & Science) A lying, sinning forelock

Surah Al-Alaq Verse 15-16 (96:15-16)

“No! If he does not desist, We will surely drag him by the forelock – A lying, sinning forelock.” (96:15-16)

Shaykh Zindani writes, “The holy Qur’an describes the front of the head being lying and sinful. God says, “a lying sinful nasiyah (front of the head).” Since the front of the head does not speak, how can it be described as being lying? It does not commit sins. How is it then said to be sinful?

“The function of the portion of the brain that lies in the front of the human head is to control the human behavior.”

“When a person intends to tell a lie, the decision is made in the frontal lobe of the brain, which is the front of the head. If he wants to commit a sin, the decision is made there, too.”

“the front of the head is responsible for judging and for directing human behavior. The working organs of the body (e.g. the limbs) are but tools to carry out the decision made in the front of the head.”

The anatomical structure of the upper region of the forehead shows that it consists of one of the bones of the skull, called the fronted bone, which protects one of the lobes of the brain called the frontal lobe, which contains several neural centers in various locations and with various functions.

The prefrontal cortex constitutes the bulk of the frontal lobe of the brain, and its function is involved in the making of one’s personality. It is also considered as a superior center among the centers of concentration, thinking and memory. It plays a significant role in the person’s emotion and it is somehow concerned with initiative and discrimination.

It also distinguishes between these virtues and vices and urges one to take the initiative whether with good or evil intent.

Surah Hud verse 56

“…There is no creature but that He holds its forelock…”

I also called to mind some of the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, such as: “O God! I am your servant and the son of your servant and the son of your bondmaid, my nasiyah (front of the head) is in Your Hands…” and: “I seek refuge with you from the evil of everything whose nasiyah is in Your Grasp.” and: “Horses have goodness embedded in their nasiyahs, till the Day of Resurrection.” From the meanings of these texts we can conclude that the nasiyah is the center of control and guidance of both human and animal behaviour.

Professor Keith L. Moore says, “The information we now know about the function of the brain, was not mentioned throughout history, nor do we find anything about it in the medical books. Should we survey all the medical literature during the time of the Prophet and several centuries thereafter, we would find no mention of the function of the frontal lobe (nasiyah), or an explanation of it or a statement about it except in this Book (Qur’an).”

The function of the frontal lobe was known for the first time in 1842, when a railway worker in America was hit with a bar that pierced his forehead. That affected his behaviour leaving the other functions of his body intact. Only then doctors came to know the function of the frontal lobe of the brain and its bearing on human behaviour. Doctors, up to then, had thought that this portion of the human brain was a mute region with no function.

Who, then, informed (Prophet) Muhammad that this portion of the brain (nasiyah) is the center of control and guidance in both people and animals and that it is the source of telling lies and committing sins?….Who, then, told (Prophet) Muhammad in particular, of this secret and this fact? It is the Divine Knowledge that no falsehood can approach from before or behind it. It is a witness from God that the Qur’an is from Him.”

Reference : Scientific truth in the holy Qur’an


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