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Adam – Variations on Where Adam, Eve, and Iblis Descended

There are many traditions concerning the place of Adam’s descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas said: “Adam descended on land called ‘Dihna’ between Mecca (Makkah) and Taif.” Al-Hassan said that Adam descended in India, Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Iblis in Bodistiman (Iraq), and the serpent in Ashahan (Iran). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim.

Assady related that Adam descended with the Black Stone1 in India (A large black stone set into the wail of the Kaba in Mecca; it is said to have come from Paradise), and he had a handful of the seeds of Paradise. He sowed them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree therein.

Lbn Umar said that Adam descended on As-Safa and Eve on Al-Marwa (As-Safa and Al-Marwa are the names of two mountains in the vicinity of the Sacred House in Mecca; part of the rites of pilgrimage (Hajj) Include pacing between these two hills in commemoration of Hajar’s search for water). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. AbdulRazzaq reported that Abi Musa Al-Shari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him with the crops from Paradise.

Abu Hurairah narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: “The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. On this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth.”

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Adam – Creation of Eve

The Reason for Eve’s Creation   

Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshiping Almighty Allah. Therefore, Adam felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found, near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful, tender eyes. Perhaps they had the following conversation:

Adam:   You were not here before I slept.

She:       Yes.

He:         From what…?

She:       I came out of you. Allah created me while you were asleep. Do you not desire to restore me to you while you are awake?

He:         Why has Allah created you?

She:       To be your solace.

He:         Thanks to Allah I was feeling lonely.

Eve’s Name       

The angels asked him her name. He replied: “Eve (Hawwa).” They asked: “Why did you call her Eve?” Adam said: “Because she was created of me, and I am a living being.” (The root of the name Hawwa” means “living things.”)

Adam Sees Eve

Ibn Abbas and a group of the companions of the Prophet narrated that when Iblis was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquillity. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from his ribs. So he asked her: “Who are you?” She replied: “A woman.” He asked: “Why have you been created?” She replied: “So that you could find tranquillity in me.” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name, 0 Adam?” He replied: “Eve.” They asked: “Why was she so named?” He replied: “Because she was created from something living.”

Eve’s Creation  

Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq and Ibn ‘Abbas related that Eve was created from the shortest left rib of Adam while he was sleeping, and after a while she was clothed with flesh. That is why Allah the Exalted said: 0 Mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam) and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. Surah 4: 1

Allah also said: It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He created from him his wife (Eve), in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. Surah 7: 189

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The Story of the First Murder

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Cain’s Jealousy of Abel

Adam was in a dilemma. He wanted peace and harmony in his family, so he invoked Allah for help. Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was accepted would have right on his side. Abel offered his best camel while Cain offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah because of his disobedience to his father and the insincerity in his offering. This enraged Cain even further. Realizing that his hopes marrying his own beautiful sister were fading, he threatened his brother. “I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!”

 

Abel feeling sorry for his brother, replied, “It would be more proper for you, my brother to search for the cause of your unhappiness and then walk in the way of peace. Allah accepts the deeds only from those who serve and fear Him, not from those who reject His Commands.”

 

The First Death

Abel was intelligent, obedient, and always ready to obey the will of Allah. This contrasted sharply with his brother who was arrogant, selfish and disobedient to his Lord. Abel did not fear his brother’s threats, but neither did he want his brother to be hurt, Allah had blessed Abel with purity and compassion.

 

Hoping to allay the hatred seething in his brother Abel said, “My brother, you are deviating from the right path and are sinful in your decisions. It is better that you repent to Allah and forget about your foolish threat. But if you do not then I will leave the matter in the hands of Allah. You alone will bear the consequence of your sin, for the Fire is the reward of the wrong-doers.”

 

This brotherly plea did nothing to lessen the hatred in Cain’s heart, nor did he show fear of Allah’s punishment. Even familial considerations were cast aside. Cain struck his brother with a stone killing him instantly. This was the first death and the first criminal act committed by man on earth. When Abel had not appeared for some time, Adam began to search for him but found no trace of his beloved son. He asked Cain about Abel’s whereabouts. Cain insolently replied that he was not his brother’s keeper nor his protector. From these words his father understood that Abel was dead and Adam was filled with grief.

 

The First Burial

 

Meanwhile Cain did not know what to do with his brother’s corpse. He carried it on his back wandering from place to place trying to hide it. His anger had now subsided and his conscience was saddled with guilt. He was tiring under the burden of the corpse which had started to have a stench. As a mercy, and to show that dignity could be retained even in death, Allah sent two ravens that began fighting, causing the death of one. The victorious bird used its beak and claws to dig a hole in the ground, rolled its victim into it and covered it with sand.

 

Witnessing this, Cain was overcome with shame and remorse. “Woe unto me!” he exclaimed. “I was unable to do what this raven has done, that is to hide my brother’s corpse.” Cain then buried his brother. This was also the first burial of man.

 

Allah the Almighty revealed:

“And (O Muhammad) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam (Abel and Cain) in truth; when each offered a sacrifice to Allah, it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former; “I will surely kill you.”

The former said: “Verily Allah accepts only from those who are Al Muttaqeen (the pious). If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear Allah; the Lord of the Alameen (mankind, jinn, and all that exists). Verily I intend to let you draw my sin onyourself as well as yours then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Zalimeen (polytheists, and wrongdoers).”

 

So the self of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers. Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: “Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?” Then he became one of those who regretted. (Chapter 5:27-31, Qur’an).

 

The First Murder – from Various Hadith

Ibn Abbas, Ibn Masud and a group of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) related that inter-marriage of the male of one pregnancy with the female of another had been in practice among Adam’s children. Abel wanted to marry Cain’s sister, but Cain wanted her for himself because she was very beautiful. Adam ordered him to give her in marriage to his brother but he refused. So Adam ordered both of them to offer a sacrifice, then went to Mecca to perform the pilgrimage. After Adam had left, they offered their sacrifices; Abel offered a fat lamb, he was a shepherd, while Cain offered a bundle of worst grain. Fire descended and devoured Abel’s sacrifice, leaving that of Cain so he became angry and said: “I will surely kill you so that you will not marry my sister.” Abel replied, “Allah accepts from those who fear Him.”

 

According to Abu Ja’afar al Baqer, Adam was watching their offering and was sure that Abel’s sacrifice would be accepted. Cain complained to Adam that the acceptance was due to his supplication for Abel and that he had not done the same for him, so he promised his father to settle the matter between himself and his brother. One night, Abel was late returning from tending his flock. Adam sent Cain to see what happened to him. When he found him, he glared at him saying: “Yours was accepted, and mine was not.” Abel replied, “Allah only accepts from the Allah-fearing.” Cain became angry on hearing this and hit him with a piece of iron that was with him and thus killing him. In another version it was said that he killed him with a rock to the head while he was sleeping.

 

Adam Preaches to His Children

Adam was utterly grief stricken by the loss of his two sons. One was dead, the other was won over by the devil. Adam prayed for his son and turned to mundane matters for he had to toil for his sustenance. At the same time he was a prophet advising his children and grandchildren, telling them about Allah and calling them to believe in Him. He told them about Iblis and warned them by recounting his own experience with the devil and of how the devil had tempted Cain to kill his brother.

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Adam’s Life on Earth

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Adam knew he bade farewell to peace and he left Paradise. On earth he had to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began. He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild beasts.

Above all, he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire. The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow Allah’s guidance and should fear nothing while those who disobey Allah and follow Iblis will be damned along with him.

Adam grasped all of this and with the knowledge of this suffering he started his life on the earth. The only thing that allowed his grief was that he was master of the earth and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate, cultivate and construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world.

The First Four Children

The pinnacle of earthly bliss was reached when Adam and Eve witnessed the birth of their first children, a set of twins. Adam was a devoted father and Eve a contented mother. The twins were Cain (Qabil) and his sister. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Abel (Habil) and his sister. The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided by their Lord. The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults. Cain tilled the land while Abel raised cattle.

Cain’s Disobedience

The time arrived when the two young men desired life partners. This was part of Allah’s plan for mankind, to multiply and form nations with different cultures and colors. Allah revealed to Adam that he should marry each son to the twin sister of the other. Adam instructed his children according to Allah’s command, but Cain was displeased with the partner chosen for him, for Abel’s twin sister was not as beautiful as his own.

Commentary: Cain’s Disobedience

It appears that since the beginning of time, physical beauty has been a factor in the attraction between man and women. This attraction caused Cain to envy his brother Abel. He rebelled against Allah’s command by refusing to accept his father’s advice.

At first glance Cain’s rebellion might appear strange, but we should remember that although man has a pure nature, the potential for dichotomy exists. In other words, he had both good and bad qualities. He can become greedy, covetous, possessive, selfish and even destructive. Man is, therefore capable of seeking self-satisfaction even if it leads to failure in this life and in the hereafter. The path to goodness lies in harnessing the enemy within him, his baser self by controlling evil thoughts and deeds and practicing moderation in his desires and actions. His reward then will be the delights of this world and the hereafter. Thus Allah tests us through our divided nature.

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Variation of Where Adam, Eve, and Iblis Descended

 

There are many traditions concerning the place of Adam’s descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas said: “Adam descended on land ‘Dihna’ between Mecca and Taif.” Al -Hassan said that Adam descended in India and Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Iblis Bodistiman (Iraq), and the serpent in Ashahan (Iran). This last was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Ass’ady related that Adam descended with the Black Stone (a large black stone set into the wall of the ka’ba in Mecca. It is said to have come from Paradise) in India, and he had a handful of the seeds of Paradise. He sow them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree therein.

Ibn Umar said that Adam descended on As-Safa and Eve on Al Marwa (names of two mountains in the vicinity of the sacred house in Mecca. Part of the rites of pilgrimage (hajj) includes pacing between these two hills in commemoration of Hajar’s search for water). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Abdul Razzaq reported that Abi Musa Al-shari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him with the crops from Paradise. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. One this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth.” (Al Bukhari)

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Adam’s Weakness

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Adam and Eve understood that they were forbidden to eat the fruit of that tree. Adam was however a human being and man tends to forget. His heart changes and his will weakens. Iblis summoned all the envy within him and took advantage of Adam’s humanity to exploit him. He started to whisper to him day after day, coaxing him: “Shall I guide you to the Tree of Immortality and the Eternal Kingdom?”

He said to them:

“Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” He (Satan) swore by Allah to them both saying: “Verily I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.”

(Chapter 7:20-21, Qur’an)

Adam asked himself: “What will happen if I eat from this tree? It might truly be the Tree of Immortality.” His dream was to live forever in the pure innocence of Paradise.”

Years went by, and Adam and Eve were preoccupied with thoughts of that tree. Then one day they decided to eat of its fruit. They forgot that Allah had warned them not to approach it and that Iblis was their sworn enemy. Adam stretched out his hand, picked one of the fruits and offered it to Eve. They both ate of the forbidden tree.

Allah Almighty told us: “So he (Satan) misled them with deception.” (Chapter 7:22, Qur’an)

 

Allah said: “Thus did Adam disobey his Lord so he went astray.” (Chapter 20:121, Qur’an).

According to the Old Testament, Eve was tempted by the serpent to eat of the forbidden tree. She ate because of the words of the serpent and fed Adam some of it. At that moment, their eyes were opened to the fact that they were naked, and they took the leaves of the fig tree to cover themselves. Wahb Ibn Munabah said that their clothing (before their sin) was made of light on the private parts of both of them. This story in the Old Testament is a falsification and deception.

Allah the Almighty revealed:

“O Children of Adam! Let not Satan deceive you, as he got your parents (Adam and Eve) out of Paradise stripping them of their raiment’s; to show them their private parts. Verily he and Qabiluhu (his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe) see you from where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the devils (protectors and helpers) for those who believe not.” (Chapter 7:27, Qur’an)

Adam had hardly finished eating when he felt his heart contract, and he as filled with pain, sadness and shame. The surrounding atmosphere had changed and the internal music had stopped. He discovered that he and his wife were naked, so they both started

cutting tree leaves with which to cover themselves.

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Allah’s Warning to Adam and Eve

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Adam and eve were admitted to Paradise and there they lived the dream of all human beings. Allah permitted them to approach and enjoy everything except one tree that might have been the Tree of Pain or the Tree of Knowledge. Allah forbade them they were give abode in Paradise.

“But come not near this tree or you both will be of the wrong doers.” (Chapter 2:35, Qur’an)

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The Location of Adam and Eve’s Paradise

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The location of this Paradise is unknown to us. The Quran did not reveal it, and the commentators had five different opinions. Some said that it was the paradise of our refuge and that its place was heaven. Others regretted that statement because if it was the paradise of refuge Iblis would have been forbidden admission and disobedience would have been forbidden as well. Still others said that it was another paradise that was created by Allah for Adam and Eve. A fourth group said it was a paradise on the earth located in a high place. Another group of commentators accept what was in the Quran without questioning where this paradise was located. We agree with this last opinion as the lesson we learn from its location is immaterial compared to the lesson we learn from the events that took place there.