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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab Battle Of Qadisiyya The Second Day

As soon as it was day, Saad had all the dead bodies of the Muslims evacuated from the battle-field, and carried on camels to Uzeib where these were buried in a small valley.

The Persians had suffered heavy casualties the previous day. All their elephants were wounded, and on the second day there were no elephants in the Persian fighting force.

The battle began with the usual duels. Jalinus the Persian General threw a challenge for single combat which was accepted by Taleaha from the Muslim side. The two champions grappled with one another. After some time Taleaha struck his sword on the head of the Persian General. The sword hardly cut the helmet of the Persian’s General but did him no physical harm. Unnerved Jalinus beat a hasty retreat.

There was a duel between Ilba b Jahash and a Persian Officer. The Persian was killed. Ilba also received some fatal wounds, and his intestines came out of his belly. He put the intestines into his belly and began to crawl to the Persian front. With his last breath he said:

“I look for merit with our Lord

I was of those who fought the best.”

Thereafter he fell dead just in front of the Persian front.

There was another duel between A’war b. Qutba and the Persian noble Shahryar. In this duel both the Muslim and his Persian adversary were killed.

At noon a small cloud of dust rose in the horizon on the way leading to Syria. Out of the cloud emerged a contingent led by Qaqa b. Amr. Umar had written to Abu Ubaida the Commander of the Muslim forces in Syria that whatever forces he could spare from the Syrian front should be sent to Iraq. After the fall of Yermuk Abu Ubaida sent a force of 1,000 men to Iraq under the Command of Hashim b. Utba who was a nephew of Saad b Abi Waqas. When Hashim neared Qadisiyya he sent an advance guard under Qaqa. As Qaqa arrived at the battle-field he gave the cry of ‘Allah-o-Akbar’, and this cry was taken up by the other Muslims who were thrilled at his arrival. Qaqa was a brother of Asim b. Amr.

Qaqa rushed into the baltle-field and gave the challenge for a duel. The challenge was accepted by the Persian General Rahman the man who had commanded the Persians at the battle of the Bridge. In a few rounds Qaqa killed Bahman. Qaqa threw another challenge. This was accepted by the Persian General Beerzan.

In the duel that followed Beerzan was killed by Qaqa. Thereafter Qaqa returned to the Muslim lines. Addressing his men he said:

“O Muslims greet the enemy with the sword. Only with sword do men kill. Do as I do.”

Then Saad ordered a general attack. The Muslim forces swept forward, but the Persians stood firm and repulsed every attack. Ultimately the Muslims pulled back to their original position. Qaqa now resorted to an ingenious device. The camels were camouflaged to look like weird monsters. These monsters moved to the Persian front and seeing them the Persian horses turned and bolted. With the disorganisation of the Persian cavalry, the Persians became vulnerable. Saad ordered the Muslims to intensify the attack. Some of the Persian units reeled under the Muslim attack and fell back to the river bank. Through the gaps in the Persian army, the Muslims penetrated deep towards the rear of the Persian army. Qaqa led a group of men through the Persian centre towards Rustam’s headquarters Rustam drew his sword and personally led a counter attack against the Muslims.

Fighting was hard and fierce. It continued till night had set in. Then the two armies pulled back to their camps. The battle of Qadisiyya was not over, but the Muslims had certainly established their supremacy over the Persian forces.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab & The Battle of Qadisiyya

The Persians crossed the Ateeq on the 16th November, 636 A.D. The previous night Rustam had a dream in which he had seen Umar seal the arms of the Persians. As Rustam woke he said to himself: “This Umar has eaten my heart. May God burn him.”

As Rustam saw his warriors cross the river and take up their positions for battle, he felt over-confident. He remarked to an Officer, “With this army we will shatter the Arabs into pieces.” The Officer added the words, “If God wills it.” Rustam was in a defiant mood and he retorted, “Even if He does not will it.”

The Persian army was deployed with five corps holding the front and one corps in reserve, each corps having a depth of 13 ranks. The centre was commanded by Rustam himself. The other Commanders were: Left Centre: Beerzan; Right Centre: Jalinus; Left Wing: Mihran; and Right Wing: Hormuzan. The reserve was commanded by Bahman.

The Persian army had a strength of 60,000 men. There were 33 war elephants in the Persian army each mounted by several men armed with javelins and bows.

At an elevated seat shaded hy a canopy near the west bank of the river sat Rustam wearing his armour. By his side waved the Dirafashe-Kavian the standard of the Persians.

The Muslim Commander-in-Chief Saad b. Abi Waqas was suffering from sciatica, and there were boils all over his body. In Qadisiyya there was an old royal palace which stood at the extremity of the battle-field. Saad took a seat in the upper storey of the palace where he lay propped up by pillows. From this seat he directed the war operations. He appointed Khalid b. Arfatah as his Deputy, who maintained liasion with the army, and carried out whatever instructions were issued by Saad from time to time.

In the centre of the Muslim army the infantry was commanded by Hammal b. Malik. The other Commanders were: Left Centre: Asim bin Amr; Right Centre: Zuhra b. Al-Hawiyya; Left Wing: Shurahbeel b. As-Samt; Right Wing: Abdullah b. Al-Mut’im. The reserve was commanded by Salman bin Rabee’a.

When the Muslim forces were arrayed in the order of battle, poets and orators addressed them, and with their stirring declamations inspired the warriors to action.

One of the orators said;

“O warriors, turn your swords into an impenetrable wall of steel; rush upon your antagonists like so many roaring lions; don the panoply of dust and turn your eyes downwards. When you have done with swords then let the arrows fly, for the swords cannot reach where arrows find their way.”

Readers of the Quran recited verses from the Holy Quran on the subject of ‘Jihad’ with forceful cadence which stirred the hearts of the warriors.

The battle began with personal duels. The first duel was between Ghalib b. Abdullah of the Bani Asad and the Persian General Hormuz. Hormuz was overpowered and brought to the Muslim camp where he was locked as a prisoner of war. From the Persian ranks a Bersian officer stepped forward and gave a challenge. This was accepted from the Muslim ranks by Amr b. Mndi Karib. They wrestled for some time when Amr threw his adversary and cut off his head Amr then turned to his men and shouted: ” When a Persian has dropped his javelin he is useless”. Then another Persian stepped forward. Amr closed up and lifted the Persian off his horse, and then cut his throat. Then he shouted, “When a Persian has lost his bow, he is useless”. The Arab champion returned to his ranks, and turning to his companions shouted, “I am Abu Thaur. Do as I do.” To this his admiring companions replied: “O Father of the Bull, who can do as you do.”

There was another combat between Asim b Amr and a Persian Officer. When the Persian got near Asim, he lost nerves, and galloped back to the Persian army. Asim followed him to the Persian line, but no Persian stepped forward to meet the challenge of Asim. Asim found a mule loaded with two saddle bags. Asim took the reins of the mule and led it to the Muslim camp. The saddle bags were found full of date cakes and honey. Saad gifted this trophy to the men belonging to the contingent of Asim.

After the duels were over, Rustam struck at the Muslims with his elephants and his wings. The Persians attack began with heavy showers of arrows. The Muslim archers shot their arrows in return, but these were light, and the Persians derisively said that the Muslim arrows were mere spindles.

After the Persian archers had gained the upper hand, Rustam ordered an attack on the Muslim right. The elephants led the attack and advanced upon the contingent led by Jareer b. Abdullah. As the elephants advanced, the Muslim horses broke out of control and fled from their position thereby leaving the infantry unsupported. As the elephants advanced the Muslim infantry was thrown into confusion, and began to fall back.

Saad seated upstairs in the Qadisiyya palace saw this confusion. He was writhing in an agony of pain, and was impatiently tossing from side to side. His wife Salma the widow of Muthanna was seated close to him. Seeing the confusion in the Muslim ranks Salma exclaimed, “What a pity, Muthanna is not here to-day.” Cut to the quick, Saad slapped her on the face saying, ‘What could have Muthanna done even if he were present?” Salma retorted “I wonder the cowards have also a sense of honour”. Then she walked away inside the house.

Saad sent orders to Ath’ath b. Qais who commanded the Kinda in the right centre, and to Hammal b. Malik who commanded the infantry of the centre to attack the Persian corps which were pursuing the Bajeela contingent. Using javelin and sword the Muslims arrested the Persian advance. Then the advancing Persians were attacked from the front as well as the flank. That made the Persians withdraw.

Rustam now ordered his right wing under Jalinus to advance against the Muslims on their front. The elephants of the Persian right and right centre moved forward. The Persian archers came into action and let loose a rain of arrows. The Muslim horses on the left and centre became unmanageable and fled from their positions. Saad sent word to Asim b. Amr who commanded the Bani Tamim to do something about the elephants.

Asim ordered his men to pick off the Persians on the elephants backs with arrows, to get behind the elephants and then slip in and cut the girths of the howdahs. Bani Tamim rushed forward to their task, and soon the girths of all the howdahs had been cut. Many Persian elephant-riders were killed as they fell, and the rest beat a hasty retreat making the elephants retire to the position behind the front line.

By afternoon the Persian attacks on the Muslim wings were beaten back. Now Saad ordered a counter attack. The Muslim front at once moved forward. The Muslim cavalry charged with full force. That made the Persians reel back. The Muslim infantry then advanced. The javelin-men hurled their javelins, and the swordsmen rushed forward brandishing their swords. About sunset the Muslims were able to create several gaps in the Persian front. Through one of such gaps the Muslim warriors charged and got very near Rustam the Persian Commander-in-Chief. Rustam plunged into the foray personally and repulsed the Muslim attack though he received several wounds on his person.

The fighting ended at dusk. The battle was inconclusive. There was considerable confusion and loss on both the sides. In the Muslim chronicles the first day of the battle of Qadisiyya came to be known as “The Day of Disorder.”

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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Rustam And Muslim Emissaries

At the head of the Persian army Rustam marched against Qadisiyya and encamped on the east bank of the Ateeq. The Muslim forces lay entrenched at Qadisiyya on the west bank of the Ateeq.

Rustam the Commander-in-Chief of the Persian forces sent a message to the Muslim Commander Saad asking him to send on emissary for talks. Saad deputed Rabi bin Amir as the envoy. Rabi crossed the bridge and made for the camp of Rustam. Rabi appeared before Rustam wearing a coat of shining mail over which was wrapped a coarse woollen cloak. Around his head was a veil held by thongs of a camel’s girth. His sword hung at his side in a sheath of coarse cloth. In his right hand he carried his spear. Rabi mounted on a shaggy horse arrived at the edge of the carpet at which Rustam and his couriers were seated.

The Persians wanted Rabi to lay aside his arms. Rabi said, “I have not come to you to lay down my weapons. You invited me, and I have come, if you do not wish me to come the way I like, I shall return.”

Rustam asked his men to let the Muslim come in the way he wished.

Rustam asked Rabi as to what was their mission. Rabi said that their mission was to spread Islam. He said, “If you accept Islam we are brothers and there is peace between us; if you refuse we fight you and leave things to God.”

“What do you expect in return”, asked Rustam.

Rabi said, “Victory if we survive, and Paradise if we die fighting in the way of Allah”.

Rustam said that he should be allowed some time to think over the matter further.

Rabi said that according to a tradition of the Holy Prophet he could give him a time of three days.

“Are you their chief”, asked Rustam.

Ribi said, “No, but the Muslims are like one body, and the lowest is equal to the highest.”

The next day Rustam asked again for an emissary. This time Saad deputed Hudhaifa bin Mihsan. He rode over the carpet to Rustam’s throne, and remained seated on his horse throughout the talks.

Rustam wanted to know why the envoy of the previous day had not come. Hudhaifa said, ‘Our Commander treats us equally in on joying favours and bearing hardships. This time it is my turn.”

“What do you expect of us”, asked Rustam.

Hudhaifa said, “We would expect you to become Muslims or pay Jizya.”

Rustam said, “What if we do not agree to both these alternatives.”

Hudhaifa said that in that case the arbitration would rest with the sword. Saying that Hudhaifa rode back from the Persian camp.

For the third time Rustam asked for another envoy. This time Muheera bin Zurara was chosen as the Muslim emissary. Mugheera rode forward and sat on the throne beside Rustam. The Persians wanted to unseat him, but he held fast, and Rustam said, “Let him remain seated.”

Looking at the short light arrows which protruded from the quiver of Mugheera, Rustam said, “O Arab what do you do with these spindles?”

Mugheera said, “We shoot them.”

“And why is your sword wrapped in rags”, asked Rustam.

Mugheera said, “It is clothed in rags but it strikes like steel”.

Rustam said that it was perhaps their hardship that had I brought the Arabs to Iraq. He said:

“It shall give your commander a set of clothes, a mule and 1,000 dirhams, and to every man among you two garments and a bag of dates. And you shall go away from us for I have no desire to kill you or take you in captivity.”

Mugheera said that times had changed, and because of Islam the Arabs were no longer fighting because they were poor or were subject to any hardship. They were fighting in the way of Allah, and they did not stand in need of any gifts from the Persians.

Rustam thereupon said, “This means that there can be no peace between us. When we go to the battle, we will slay the whole lot of you.”

Thereupon Mugheera walked away from the Persian camp.

The following day a delegation consisting of four Muslims namely Busr b. Abi Ruhm; Arfaja b. Harsama, Qirfa b.Zahir and Mazur b. Adi went to see Rustam.

This time Rustam talked in parables. He said:

“We are like the man who had a vineyard and saw a fox in it one day. He said one fox did not matter. But the fox called other foxes to the vineyard. When they had all gathered in it, the owner closed the hole in the wall of the vineyard through which they had entered, and then killed all the foxes.

And you are like the rat who found a jar of grain with a hole in it and went through the hole. His friends called to him to come out but he refused and went on eating the grain until he became fat. Then he felt a desire to show his friends how beautiful he looked, but found that because of his bulk he could no longer get through the hole. So he complained to his friends of his trouble and asked for their assistance. They asked him to starve himself so that he might become as thin as before. The rat starved itself but in the meantime the owner of the jar came to know of it and killed it.”

Rustam further said:

“And you are like the fly that saw a bowl of honey and said to his friends, ‘Whoever gets me to that honey shall have two dirhams’. The other flies tried to stop him, but he went on to the honey and then into it. As he began to drown in the honey he cried out ‘whoever gets me out of the honey shall have 4 dirhams.”

Rustam narrated another parable. He said:

“You are like the fox who came into a vineyard, thin and starving and began eating as God wished. The owner of the vineyard saw him and pitying his condition, let him stay. But when the fox had been there for some time and grown big and fat, he turned wicked and started to destroy more grapes than he consumed. This angered the owner, who along with his servants, took a big stick and came after him. The fox dodged them and ran to the hole in the vineyard wall through which he had come, but that hole was big enough for him only when he was thin, and now he was too fat to get through it. So the owner and his servants caught up with him and beat him with sticks until he was dead.

O Arabs you came when you were thin, and now you are fat. See how you get out.”

The Arabs said that these parables were idle narrations which carried nowhere. They reiterated their usual demands, Islam, Jizya or sword.

Exasperated Rustam said, “If that is that, let the sword decide.”

He asked,”Will you cross the river to our side, or shall we cross to your side.”

The Muslims said, “You cross to our side.”

When the Muslim envoys returned they apprised Saad of the proceedings. Thereupon the Muslim Commander-in-Chief sent word in the Muslim camp that they should get ready for war.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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The Muslims Carried The Earth Of Persia

In compliance with the instructions of Umar, Saad bin Abi Waqas sent a delegation of twelve Muslims to offer Islam to Yazdjurd the emperor of Persia. The Muslim delegation included Noman b. Muqrin, Muthanna bin Haritha, Asim b. Amr, and Mugheera bin Zurara.

The Muslim delegation rode to Ctesiphon or al-Madsen the capital of Persia. The Muslims dismounted outside the palace of the emperor. A large crowd of the Persians gathered to stare at the shaggy horses and stern faced hard sons of the desert.

The delegation was ushered into the presence of the emperor Yazdjurd surrounded by interpretors and couriers. The Persians used to prognosticate events by omen. In a playful mood Yazdjurd asked the Muslim envoys what a mantle was called in Arabic. They said that it as called “burd”. “Burd” in Persian meant to carry away, and the emperor felt; that the Arabs were to carry away Persia.

Then he asked what was the Arabic name for a whip and they said that it was ‘Saut’. He construed it as ‘Sokht’, which in Persian meant “burned”. The emperor felt in his heart that the Muslims were going to burn Persia.

Yezdjurd next asked, ‘What compels you to invade our land. Is it because we have left you in peace that you have grown so bold?”

Noman b. Muqrin speaking on behalf of the delegation said that. Allah had been kind to them. God had sent a prophet to them who bad shown them the right way. Under the leadership of the Prophet they had been transformed. They were the chosen people of God, and God had entrusted to them a mission, the mission of spreading the true faith.

Noman added:

“In pursuance of our mission, we call you to our faith. If you accept our faith we will leave you with the Book of God, and leave you to your land. If you are not agreeable to join our faith you should accept our overlordship and pay us ‘Jizya’. If this alternative is also not acceptable to you, then the sword will decide the issue between us.”

Yazdjurd retorted:

“Don’t you recollect that you were the most wretched and most miserable people that the world ever saw. Whenever you showed signs of recalcitrance we had only to issue orders to the commanders of our frontier outposts and they crushed your mutinous spirit.”

Thereupon Mugheera bin Zurara said that what the emperor said about the Arabs was true in the days of Ignorance; after the advent of the Prophet things had changed and they were no longer wretched or miserable. It was not hunger or misery that had brought them to Persia. They had come carrying the message of the new faith for them. If the message was accepted they would be happy and treat them as brothers. If they were not inclined to accept the new faith or pay Jizya, then there was no option but fight.

The emperor was enraged at these bold words of the Muslims. He shouted, “But for the fact that envoys are not killed, I would surely have killed you. Know that we are a great people whose history extends over ages and such people are proud of their faith which they would not change. And as regards Jizya, I would put dust in your mouth. And as regards the fight know that we are not afraid of you. Tell your Commander that I am sending Rustam against him with a large force, who will teach you a bitter lesson.”

Then Yazdjurd asked a court attendant to fetch a basket of earth. When the basket was brought, addressing the Muslim envoys he said, ‘Here is the Jizya for you; carry it”.

Asirn b. Amr stepped forward, and carried the basket on his head. Turning to the emperor he said, “You have of your own accord handed over your land to the Muslims. We accept your gift.”

Thereafter the Muslim envoys rode back at great speed to the Muslim camp carrying the basket of the earth of Persia.

Immediately thereafter Rustam saw Yazdjurd, and the emperor told him that he had given the Muslim envoys dust to carry. Rustam said that was a bad omen for it signified that the Muslims had carried away Persia.

Rustam sent off a group of horsemen to pursue the Muslim envoys and get the fateful basket containing the dust of Persia back from them. To these horsemen Rustam said, “Proceed with the speed of lightning and snatch your mother-earth from the Muslims. lf you recover the basket our land will be safe; if you fail then we are doomed.”

The Persian party set off at a brisk pace in pursuit of the Muslim envoys, but they could not catch the Muslims. The Muslims crossed the Ateeq bridge to safety long before the Persians could arrive at the bridge head. The Persians returned crest fallen to report to Rustam the failure of their mission.

In the Muslim camp, there was rejoicing. Presenting the basket containing the dust of Persia to Saad b. Abi Waqas Asim b. Amr said:

“Commander Allah has given us the keys of their kingdom. Rejoice for this is a sign that we are going to conquer their land.”

In the Persian camp, Rustam sulked and muttered to himself:

“The enemy has snatched away the keys of our kingdom.”

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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Adventures Of Taleaha

Taleaha bin Khuwalid was an adventurer. He was the chief of the Bani Asad. He was a poet and a soothsayer, and commanded respect in Arabia during the days of ignorance.

When the Holy Prophet declared his mission, Taleaha became a vicious enemy of Islam. In the Battle of the Ditch Taleaha sided with the Quraish, and commanded a contingent of the Bani Asad in the coalition of the infidels who fought against the Muslims.

In the battle of Khyber he sided with the Jews but was worsted. In 631 A D. when all other Arabian tribes accepted Islam, he also became a convert to Islam. In 633 A.D. he renounced his allegiance to Islam, and declared himself to be a prophet. He introduced a new way of prayer in which there were no prostrations. Many clans of Central Arabia joined him, and soon he became a powerful enemy of Islam.

In the apostasy campaigns, Taleaha was defeated by Khalid bin Walid in the battle of Buzakha. From Buzakha Taleaha fled to Syria. When Syria was conquered by the Muslims, Taleaha once again became a convert to Islam.

Later he returned to Arabia, and joined the war against the Persians. In the camp at Qadisiyya, Saad bin Abi Waqas deputed Taleaha to go to the Persian camp and gather some intelligence.

Taleaha crossed the Ateeq and proceeded in the direction of Najaf. He had hardly gone four or five miles when he came upon the Persian camp at Kharara.

The men with Taleaha decided to return, but Taleaha moved on and went into the Persian camp. He soon came upon a beautiful white rent, outside which a beautiful horse stood togethered. Taleaha took the horse. He cut the ropes of the tent, which collapsed upon the sleeping inmate. A little further he came across another good horse and a fine tent. He took that horse as well. Here again he cut the ropes of the tent which fell on the man who slept inside.

A little further there was another horse and a tent. This time again he took the horse, and by cutting the ropes made the tent collapse. It transpired that these tents lodged gladiators, called ‘Hazer Mard’, each gladiator being deemed equal in strength to a thousand men.

Taleaha now outside the Persian camp mounted his own horse and began his return journey leading the three captured horses. He had not gone far when the three gladiators caught up with him.

Undaunted, Taleaha turned to his pursuers. One of the gladiators challenged him to personal duel, and Taleaha agreed. The gladiator charged at Taleaha with his lance, but Taleaha side stepped and avoided the charge. As the Persian hurled past him, Taleaha swung round in his saddle, and plunged his spear in the back of his adversary who fell down dead.

Next the second Persian champion grappled with Taleaha. He attacked and Taleaha side stepped. Then Taleaha charged and the Persian champion fell dead.

Then the third champion came forward, and overpowering him, Taleaha rode with him as a captive to the Muslim camp. Before dawn Taleaha was back in the Muslim camp with three Persian horses and a ‘Hazer Mard’ as a captive.

The Persian captive was presented to Saad bin Abi Waqas, and he gave much useful information about the Persian moves. The Persian champion said on oath that he had seen war ever since he was a boy and had defeated and killed many champions in his lifetime but he had never seen such a fighter as Taleaha.

Taleaha offered the Persian champion Islam, and he accepted the faith of Islam. In the war that followed the Persian ‘Hazar Mard’ fought valiantly by the side of Taleaha.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab To Qadisiyya

In July 6.36 A.D. the main Muslim army marched from Sharaf to Qadisiyya. Qadisiyya was on the west bank of the Ateeq, a branch of the Euphrates. It was the last staging camp in Arabia on the route to Iraq. Hira lay about thirty miles ahead.

After establishing the camp, organising the defences, and securing the river heads, Saad sent parties inside the Suwad to conduct raids. In one of these raids the Muslims captured the bridal procession of the daughter of Azazbeh the Persian Governor of Hira. A large booty was captured including the bride and other Persian damsels.

From Qadisiyya, Saad wrote to Umar:

“The enemy has sent no one against us and has not appointed, so far we know, anyone to command the campaign. When we get the information, we will report to you and seek Allah’s help.”

To this Umar replied in the following terms:

“Strengthen your heart and your army with sermons and right intentions and worthiness; and as for those who forget, remind them. Steadfastness and again steadfastness! For help comes from Allah according to one’s intentions and His reward according to one’s deserts. Caution and again caution! For grave is the matter upon which you are embarked. And pray to Allah for his blessiogs.

Write to me when you know of the concentration of their army and who commands it, for in the absence of knowledge about their army and its commander I am not able to give you much guidance.

Describe the place where you are and the land between you and Medina. Describe it so clearly that I may see it with my own eyes, and become one of you.

Fear Allah and in Him rest your hopes.”

Saad sent the required topographical information. The intelligence reports of the spies were also forwarded to Umar. Saad stated that all the people of the Suwad who had entered into pacts with the Muslims had gone back on their pledges. They were collaborating with the Persians and were preparing for war against the Muslims.

Saad wrote:

“The Commander of the Persian army is Rustam, and he has some other top-ranking Generals.

They seek to weaken us and pounce upon us and we seek to weaken them and attack them. The command of Allah is as good as bone and His decision will be according to whatever He wishes for us or against us. We beseech Allah for the best of decisions and the best of judgements.” In reply, Umar instructed:

“Remain where you are until Allah fixes your enemy for you.

And if Allah should give you victory, pursue them until you fall upon Madain, which Allah willing will be destroyed.”

A week later, Umar further instructed:

“My heart tells me that when you meet the enemy you will God willing defeat him. So dispel all doubt from your mind, and if any of you gives a promise of peace to a Persian, with sign or speech, even if he does not understand it, let him fulfil the promise.

Beware of jesting, faithfulness and again faithfulness. Errors committed in good faith are acceptable but deliberate unfaithfulness leads to destruction. In it will lie your weakness and your enemy’s strength, the depression of your courage and the elevation of the courage of your enemy.

I caution you not to bring dishonour to the Muslims, nor be a cause of their disgrace.”

Saad reported about the large strength of the forces of the Persians. To this Umar replied as follows:

“Let not the information which you get about the enemy distress you. Seek Allah’s help, and in Him place your trust.”

Umar also desired that a delegation of some intelligent persons should be sent to the emperor of Persia to call him to Islam.

After the battle of Yermuk some forces were released from the Syrian front and sent to Iraq under the command of Ath’ath bin Qais. The strength of Saad’s army at Qadisiyya now rose to 29,000.

The Muslim forces intensified their raiding activities. The entire Suwad now became a hunting ground for the Muslim raiders. These raids were undertaken partly to gather supplies for the Muslim army, and partly to demoralise the Persians.

The inhabitants of the Suwad appealed to the Persian emperor to do something urgently to save them from the raids of the Muslims. The emperor Yazdjurd assured them that he was sending a large force under Rustam against the Muslims, and he would crush the Arabs.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab & Campus At Zarud And Sharaf

Saad arrived with his force of 4,000 at Zarud and went into camp. The troops were spread in the region, and couriers were sent to all the tribes in Northern Arabia calling the tribesmen to war in the name of Allah. As a result of these efforts about 7,000 warriors were recruited from the tribes particularly the Bani Asad and Bani Tameem. Among those who joined the Muslim forces was Taleaha who had during the apostasy campaigns of the time of Abu Bakr claimed to be a prophet and had fought against the Muslims. He had escaped to Syria where he was converted to Islam. Those who had once apostated were not allowed by Abu Bakr to be recruited to the Muslim forces. Hazrat Umar, because of the large scale campaigns to be undertaken lifted the ban. Availing of this concession Taleaha and his tribesmen joined the Muslim forces in Iraq in large numbers.

Umar sent another force of 4,000 men to join the main army at Zarud. The strength of the army at Zarud now rose to 15,000. Muthanna with 3,000 men was stationed at Sharaf some sixty miles from Zarud on the main route to Iraq.

From Zarud the main Muslim army marched to Sharaf, and they arrived there in July 636 A.D. Before Saad arrived, Muthanna was dead. In his will Musanna had desired that Saad bin Abi Waqas should marry his widow Salma bint Khasfa. He also left a message for Saad which ran as follows:

“The Muslims should not fight the Persians when they are concentrated in their homeland, but should fight them on the boundary near the desert. Thus if Allah should give the Muslims victory, they will have whatever lies behind the Persians, and if the result is otherwise, they can withdraw into a region the routes whereof they know best and of which they are masters-until Allah decides that they should return to battle.”

Saad prayed for the soul of Muthanna. He paid rich tributes to his bravery. In fulfilment of the will of Muthanna, Saad married his widow Salma. He was impressed with the parting advice of Muthanna, and decided to follow it. He reported this advice to Umar who approved of it.

Umar instructed Saad as follows:

“Organise the army into tens and let the men know their units.

Appoint the commanders of the corps and let them see and know their men.

Give the contingents Qadisiyya as the meeting point.

Get Mugheera bin Shu’ba to join you with his cavalry.

Comply with these instructions and then write to me.”

Saad organised the army in accordance with the instructions of Umar. From the Uballa sector Mugheera bin Shu’ba joined Sad with his cavalry of 800 horse.

Umar next instructed Saad as follows:

“March with the Muslims from Sharaf towards the Persians.

Place your faith in Allah and seek His help, and know that you are advancing against a people whose numbers are vast, whose equipment is superb, whose strength is great and whose land is difficult. Even its plains consist of rivers and heavily-watered land. When you meet them or any of them, attack them fiercely, but beware of facing them if they are all together. Let them not trick you, for they are wily plotters and their ways are not your ways.

When you get to Qadisiyya, remain there and leave not your place. They will find your continued stay intolerable and will come out against you with all their strength of horse and foot. And if you stand fast against them, you shall overcome them, and should they ever assemble again in great numbers, they shall do so without hearts.

And should the result be otherwise, you will have the desert behind you and can withdraw into a region which you know and control and of which they are ignorant and afraid. And there you should stay until Allah decides victory for you and you return to battle.”

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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S’aad Bin Abi Waqas

Another revolution in Persia brought Yazdjurd to the throne of Persia. He was young and intelligent, and on coming to the throne his principal concern was to take effective steps to drive away the Arabs from the soil of Iraq.

Heretofore some battles had been fought on the soil of Iraq, but these had not been decisive. “The Muslims had occupied some areas, but their hold had not been firm. In the counter movements of the Persians the Muslims were pushed out of such areas. The Muslims retaliated and occupied such areas again. And again they abandoned them either of their own accord for strategical reasons or were pushed back. This to and fro process had been repeated several times, and this had led to political instability in the Suwad, the fertile area between the Euphrates and the Tigris.

Yazdjurd decided to organise things in a big way, and mobilise the resources of his empire for a titanic struggle with the Arabs. The Persians mustered a strong force under the veteran General Rustam. The force fully armed and equipped was cantoned at Sabat near al-Madain.

When these developments were reported to Umar, he realised that the scanty. Muslim forces in Iraq under the command of Muthanna were exposed to great danger. The Caliph ordered Muthanna to abandon Hira and other advanced posts in Iraq and to withdraw to the edge of the desert. Musanna pulled back his forces and stationed them at Sharaf close to the edge of the desert. In the southern sector the Muslims also pulled back and encamped in the hills of Ghuzayy.

The entire Suwad and all the main cities of Iraq were once again under Persian occupation. The war against the Persians, had to start once again from the periphery. Umar gave the call to Jihad. Throughout the Arabian peninsula messages were sent to the Governors and the chiefs of tribes to muster in full strength at Madina. The command of Umar was:

“Leave none who has weapons or a horse or strength or intelligence. Take him and send him to me. Hurry, O hurry!”

The response to the call was encouraging. Volunteers began to pour into Madina. Umar organised the camp at Sirar three miles from Madina on the route to Iraq. In March 636 A D. the first concentration of troops was complete, and Umar moved in person to the camp at Sirar leaving the administration at Madina to the charge of Ali.

Umar addressed the troops mustered at Sirar, apprised them of the situation in Iraq, and invited their reaction. The congregation said with one voice, “Go, and we go with you for the glory of Islam.” Umar said, “Prepare for war, and I will go with you unless some better counsel comes forth.”

Umar summoned a council of war at Sirar to which leading Companions were invited. The council was required to advise whether the campaign in Iraq shoutd be led personally by Umar, or should some one else be appointed to the command.

Ali said, “Go yourself for that will have a greater psychological effect both upon the Muslims as well as the enemy”. Talha endorsed this view.

Abdur Rehman bin Auf said, “Stay, and send the army; and the will of Allah in respect of your wishes will be manifested in the fortunes of your army. If it is defeated, it will not be your defeat; but if you are killed or defeated, it would be a humiliation and a terrible blow to Muslim prestige.”

After discussion, and the weighing of the pros and cons the consensus emerged in favour of the view advocated by Abdur Rahman bin Auf.

The Caliph next sought advice to the person who should be appointed as tbe Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces in Iraq Abdur Rahman bin Auf proposed the name of Saad bin Abi Waqas.

Saad bin Abi Waqas was at that time the Governor of Nejd. He was one of the earliest converts to Islam. He was among the ‘Ashra Mubashara’, the Ten Companions who had been given the news of Paradise in their life time. He was the only man to whom the Holy Prophet had said, “I sacrifice my father and mother to you.” He was the maternal uncle of the Holy Prophet.

Umar said, “I know that Sand is a brave man He fought at Badr and Uhud. My only anxiety is that he does not have sufficient knowledge about the strategy of war.”

Othman said, Saad should be appointed to the command, and he should be instructed to seek counsel from men of experience and knowledge of war, and not act without their advice.” This view was endorsed by all and ultimately agreed to.

The following day Umar ordered a congregation of the army at Sirar, and addressed them as follows:

“Lo! Allah Most High and Mighty has gathered his people to Islam and his joined their hearts and made them brothers one to another. The Muslims are like one body of which the entire body suffers, if any part suffers. It is incumbent upon the Muslims to decide their affairs in a council of men of judgement. The troops must follow the one appointed to command by mutual agreement and consent; and the one appointed to command must accept the decision of men of judgement in the strategy of war. O people, I am just one of you, but men of judgement have dissuaded me from going with you. I have decided to remain here, and send another person in command; and I have consulted all in this matter.”

Saad was called from Nejd, and as he appeared before Umar, the Caliph said:

“I have appointed you Commander of the war in Iraq. Remember my words for you are proceeding on a difficult and fearful mission in which right can only prevail.”

In May 636 A.D., Saad bin Abi Waqas marched from the Sirar camp with an army of 4,000 men. At the time of departure Umar prayed for the success of the mission they had undertaken. His parting instruction to Saad was:

“Stop when you get to Zarud and disperse in the region. Urge the people there to join you ami take all who have courage, intelligence, strength and weapons.”

Umar promised that he would send more and more of help. He said that he would hurl every chief, every noble, and every warrior in Arabia against the Persians.

As the army under the command of Saad marched past Umar, the Caliph raised his hands in prayers and said:

“O Mighty Allah! These people are going to fight in your way. Bless them with victory.”

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab & Campaings In South Iraq

Uballa on the Persian Gulf was the key of South Iraq. When Khalid bin Walid began his campaigns in Iraq he started with Uballa and occupied it without much resistance. Later as the Muslims won victories after victories in Iraq the focus shifted north west to Hira.

When Khalid bin Walid went to Syria very few Muslim forces were left in Iraq. Consequently the Muslims abandoned many posts in Iraq including Uballa. Uballa was re-occupied by the Persians. A small Muslim force under Qutba bin Qatada, however, continued to be stationed in the nighbourhood of Uballa to protect the routes to Arabia.

When Umar sent Abu Ubaid on the main Iraq front, he felt that it was necessary to send some reinforcement to the southern sector as well. Umar accordingly sent a contingent under Shareeh b. Amr to reinforce Qutba. Qutba was instructed to raid deeper into Persia.

Qutba sent Shareeh across the Tigris to raid Ahwaz. In the way at Daris, Shareeh was intercepted by the Persian forces and killed.

After the battle of Buwaib, Qutba wrote to Umar asking for more aid for intensifying activities in the southern sector.

Umar realised the importance of the southern sector. He sent for Utba b Ghazwan an early Companion and offered him the command of the southern sector. Addressing him the Caliph said:

“Allah Most High and Mighty has given Hira and what is around it to your brothers who have subdued the region of Babylon. Many of the Persian nobles have been killed. I feel that the Persians from the south will go to the help of the Persians in the north west. My strategy is to prevent the Persians on one side from helping the Persians on the other. Go to the region of Uballa and keep the people of Ahwaz and Fars and Meisan occupied so that they do not help their comrades in the Suwad.

Fight them in the hope that Allah will give you victory. March with faith in Allah and fear Allah. Be fair in judgement; say your prayers at the appointed times and remember Allah much.”

Utba bin Ghazwan set off from Madina with 2,000 men and arrived in the neighbourhood of Uballa in June 635. He took over the command of the sector. The Muslims were encamped at a site twelve miles from modern Basra amidst the ruins of an ancient town.

The Commander of the Persian forces of the district of Furat marched to battle. His strategy was to fall upon the, Muslims unawares and thereby crush them. When the Persian forces arrived they found the Muslims ready for war. In the battle that followed the Persians were defeated. The Muslims pursued the defeated Persians to Uballa. No resistance was offered to the Muslims at Uballa which was occupied by the Muslims in September 635 A.D.

With Uballa as the base, Utba sent a force across the Tigris which occupied the district of Furat. The Muslim forces next marched into the district of Meisan. The Persians contested the advance of the Muslims but they were defeated and the entire district of Meisan was occupied by the Muslims. Another Muslim force advanced further afield and occupied the district of Abarqubaz. Another column captured Mazar. After subjugating these areas the Muslim forces returned to Uballa. The southern sector was now under the command of the Muslims, and the Persian supply line from Fars was cut off.

A little later the Governor of Abarqubaz revolted. Utba sent a column under Mugheera b. Shu’ba to deal with the revolt. The two forces met at Marghab. The Persians were defeated, and their Commander Feelhan was killed.

Next, there was a revolt in the district of Meisan. A column under Mugheera marched against the rebels and the revolt was successfully suppressed.

By November 635 A.D. the Muslim hold in the southern sector was quite firm Utba went on a short leave to Madina, where he died. Umar appointed Mugheera b. Shu’ba to the command of the Muslim forces in South Iraq.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set
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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab & Battle Of Buwaib

After the disaster of the Bridge the Muslim army under Muthanna was stationed at Ulleis. Both Umar and Muthanna sent heralds and emissaries to all parts of Arabia inviting the Arabs to participate in the war against the Persians.

In response to this call volunteers came from all parts of Arabia. Makhnaf b. Salim the chief of the Azd tribe came with 700 horsemen. A contingent of a thousand men of the Banu Tameem came under the command of Hasin b. Mabid. Adi the son of the legendary Hatim Tai came with a large contingent of his tribesmen. Contingents also came from the tribes of Rabab, Banu Kinanah, Khath’am, Banu Hanzalah, and Banu Dabbah. The Christian Arabs of the tribes of Narmr and Taghlab also joined to reinforce the Muslim war effort. To the clan of Bajeela led by Jareer bin Abdullah, Umar offered an additional share of the booty, out of the Khums-the state share.

After having received reinforcements, Muthanna moved to Zu Qar a few miles south of Qadisiyya. When the Persians came to know of the preparations of the Muslims they decided to send a strong force against the Muslims fed by Mihran. Mihran had been in Arabia and was regarded as an expert in the Arabian way of war. The Persian army under .Mihran marched to the Euphrates and camped on the east bank opposite he site of modern Kufa.

Muthanna with the Muslim army advanced from Zu Qar, and arriving on the west bank of the Euphrates camped at Nakheila. At Nakheila a stream Buwaib took off from the Euphrates.

Mihran sent a message to Muthanna whether the Muslims would like to cross the Euphrates, or whether they would like the Persians to cross over to their side. The Muslims have had a bitter experience of crossing the river in the ‘Battle of the Bridge’, and so Muthanna said to the Persian emissary “You cross.”

The following day, the Persians crossed the river, and Mihran arranged his forces in battle order with display of much splendour and pomp.

One wing of the Muslim army was led by Adi b. Hatim, and the other wing was led by Jareer. Masud, a brother of Muthanna held the command of the infantry. Muthanna mounted his horse ‘Shams’, and rode from one and to the other. Addressing the army he said:

“Brave soldiers! beware, lest, on account of you, the stigma of dishonour should fall to the Arabs.”

The Persians dashed forward roaring like thunder. Muthanna shouted to his men not to pay any heed to such noise, as it was mere sound signifying nothing. He asked the wing commanders to stick fast, as he was going to make a rush on the Persian forces.

With the shouts of Allah-o-Akbar the Muslim army rolled forward, and such was the overwhelming impetuosity of their onslaught that they rent asunder the serried ranks of the Persian right flank, and penetrated the Persian centre. The Persians reeled before the terrible onset, but they rallied and fought so desperately that the Muslim ranks began to waver.

Seeing some Muslims turn back, Muthanna thundered: “O Muslims’ whither are you going. I am here; come to me. Muthanna rallied his forces and ordered a fresh attack. Masud the brother of Muthanna received many wounds, and fell down. That made the Muslims lose heart. Turning to the Muslims, Muthanna said:

“O Muslims, never mind if my brother is killed. Valiants always die like that. See that the standard that you carry is not lowered.”

Masud himself while dying cried, “Let not my death make you lose heart; you must forward to your task.”

Anas b. Hilal, a Christian commander fighting with the Muslim forces fell fighting heroically. Muthanna took him up in his arms, and laid him alongside his brother Masud. Many Muslim officers of note were killed, but Muthanna wanted his men to persevere. Mihran the Commander-in-Chief of the Persian army fought heroically. Muthanna asked his men to advance, and make Mihran their target. A youthful warrior of the Taghlab tribe rushed forward with great courage and intrepidity, and penetrating the Persian ranks slew Mihran with his sword. The youth proclaimed:

“I am a young men of the Taghlab tribe;

“I have killed Mihran, the Persian Chief.”

The death of Mihran turned the tide of the battle. The Persians lost nerve, and fled in disorder. Muthanna at once made a dash for the bridge and captured it. That prevented the Persians from recrossing the river. The Muslims made mincemeat of the Persians. According to the annals, no battle had ever left so many corpses for its sanguinary souvenir as were strewn on the battle-field of Buwaib. For years thereafter the travellers in the region witnessed the grim spectacle of heaps of bones scattered in all directions.

The battle of Buwaib was the reply of the Muslims to the battle of the Bridge. In the battle of the Bridge a greater part of the Muslim army managed to escape; in the battle of Buwaib the entire Persian army was annihilated.

At the conclusion of the battle, Muthanna said:

“I have fought Arabs and Persians. I have fought them in the time of Ignorance and again in the time of Islam. By Allah during the days of Ignorance a hundred Persians were stronger than a thousand Arabs, but to-day a hundred Arabs are stronger than a thousand Persians.”

The battle of the Buwaib was fought in April 635.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set