Brexit Forward Process

The parties confirm their intention to work in good faith toward agreements necessary for their future relationship. They intend to commence formal negotiations as soon as possible after the UK’s withdrawal to the end of the agreements’ coming into force by the end of 2020.

The UK and the EU recognize the paramount importance of the peace process in Northern Ireland for stability, reconciliation and peace. The parties have agreed to protect the Good Friday or Belfast Agreement of 10 April 1998 in all its parts. After the parties approve this declaration and before the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, the parties will conduct organizational work, including preparation of a proposed schedule for delivery of the work program. After the UK’s withdrawal from the Union, the parties will negotiate the envisaged agreements in parallel.

Immediately upon the UK’s withdrawal, the parties will agree on the structure, format and schedule for the negotiation rounds. After the UK’s withdrawal, the parties will conduct high-level conferences every six months to evaluate progress and determine next actions.

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Brexit: Institutional and Other Horizonal Arrangements

The parties have agreed that an overarching institutional framework which could take the form of an Association Agreement should provide the basis for their future relationship.

The framework’s exact legal form will be defined during their formal negotiations. Where the parties determine that an agreement should exist outside the overarching framework, they will set out governance arrangements as appropriate. The parties agree to establish provisions for reviewing their future relationship. Provisions of the Withdrawal Agreement should form the basis of arrangements for dispute settlement and enforcement.

Discussion and consultation should represent the parties’ first line of dispute resolution. Where necessary, either party may refer a matter to the Joint Committee for formal resolution. At any time, the Joint Committee may select to refer a dispute to an independent arbitration panel.

If the Joint Committee does not reach a timely, mutually satisfactory resolution, either party may also refer the dispute to arbitration. Where questions arise as to interpretations of EU law, the CJEU will consider and rule on the matter.

“The Parties will cooperate to tackle illegal migration, including its drivers and its consequences, whilst recognising the need to protect the most vulnerable.”

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Brexit : UK & EU Security Partnership

The UK and the EU recognize the need for a broad, balanced security partnership to promote security and safety for the citizens of Europe and the UK and to support European security generally. The security partnership will take in the areas of law enforcement, judicial cooperation, foreign policy, security and defense, and thematic cooperation.

In the areas of law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, the parties have agreed on close, reciprocal cooperation. The cooperation that the parties envision will require adherence to the European Convention on Human Rights and protections for personal data, as well as commitment to the “ne bis in idem” principle, procedural rights and the EU’s Charter of Fundamental Rights.

The parties agree to arrange for the exchange of Passenger Name Record data, DNA, fingerprints and vehicle registration data. With regard to operational cooperation in law enforcement, the parties will seek UK cooperation through Europol and Eurojust, and will determine arrangements for the surrender of suspected and convicted persons, along with other appropriate arrangements for cooperation. The parties have committed to join in international activities to oppose money laundering and terrorist financing, including setting high standards for transparency in beneficial ownership.

“The Parties agree that the scale and scope of future arrangements should achieve an appropriate balance between rights and obligations.”

With regard to defense capability development, the parties recognize the benefits to interoperability and joint effectiveness of research and industrial cooperation in specific projects. They have committed to enable, as much as possible, the UK’s participation in European Defence Agency projects, collaborative projects under the European Defense Fund and certain projects within the Permanent Structured Cooperation framework.

The parties agree on the need for timely and voluntary intelligence exchanges, especially with regard to counter terrorism, hybrid threats and cyber threats. The UK and the EU recognize the need for dialogue to facilitate development cooperation, and they have agreed to consider potential UK contributions to the EU’s instruments and mechanisms.

The parties “will champion a rules-based international order and project their common values worldwide.”

With regard to illegal migration, the UK and the EU have agreed to cooperate in efforts addressing its drivers and consequences. This would include operational cooperation with Europol regarding people trafficking, cooperation with the European Border and Coastguard Agency on strengthening the EU’s external borders, and dialogue about cooperating to address illegal migration.

The parties have agreed to cooperate in efforts to fight terrorism and violent extremism. With regard to classified and sensitive information, the parties have committed to sign a Security of Information Agreement setting out reciprocal guarantees for the handling and protection of information.

“The Parties will promote sustainable development and the eradication of poverty.”

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Economic Partnership (UK & EU – Brexit)

Given the substantial economic integration of the UK and the EU, they have committed to pursue a bold and comprehensive economic partnership. This partnership will aim to facilitate trade and investment between the UK and EU that is consistent with the principles of the EU’s Single Market and Customs Union, and with the UK’s internal market. The parties will each retain autonomy, and the partnership will recognize that the UK will develop its own trade policy. A free trade area is envisioned along with cooperation in sectors of mutual interest. The parties maintain committed to come to an agreement in the future that will permanently ensure no hard border on the island of Ireland.

“This declaration establishes the parameters of an ambitious, broad, deep and flexible partnership…rooted in the values and interests that the Union and the United Kingdom share.”

The EU and the UK seek a close trading relationship, while recognizing that the parties will have separate markets and that the cross-border movement of goods can threaten these markets’ functioning. To aid cross-border movements of goods, the parties anticipate cooperation in the areas of regulation and customs, along with provisions to ensure free and fair competition. The parties will seek to encourage compatible regulatory approaches that facilitate trade. The UK has agreed to explore alignment with EU rules in some areas. With regard to customs arrangements, the parties intend to pursue ambitious cooperative arrangements while respecting both parties’ legal orders and financial and public policy interests. Cooperative commitments on the part of the UK will count as a risk-reducing factor with regard to checks and controls by the EU.

“The future relationship will be based on a balance of rights and obligations, taking into account the principles of each Party.”

The parties agree to seek ambitious, liberalizing arrangements pertaining to trade and investment services as well as investment in non-services sectors, exceeding their World Trade Organization commitments. These arrangements will relate to business and financial services, telecommunications, transport services and others. Arrangements will provide for market access and national treatment, will cover performance requirements for investors. They should promote efficient, transparent and compatible regulatory approaches and should encourage regulatory cooperation where mutual interests exist. With regard to domestic regulation, horizontal provisions should address specific regulations for sectors that represent areas of mutual interest, such as telecommunications. With regard to financial services, the parties maintain a commitment to stability, integrity, fairness, and consumer and investor protection. The parties aim to complete equivalence assessments for each other under their respective equivalence frameworks before the end of June 2020. They have agreed to cooperate on regulatory and supervisory matters.

“The Parties are agreed that the future relationship should be approached with high ambition with regard to its scope and depth.”

The UK and EU have agreed to establish provisions for the digital trade in services and for goods that facilitate commerce and cross-border data flows. They also agree to provide for fair and equal access with regard to public telecommunications networks and services, to address anti-competitive practices and to cooperate on information exchange and best practices for emerging technologies. They agree to promote and protect intellectual property rights, maintaining the existing levels of protection. They will cooperate on intellectual property issues where mutual interests exist. With regard to public procurement, the parties agree to make provisions for mutual opportunities in their respective public procurement markets, where domestic security interests permit. They also maintain a commitment to standards regarding transparency and agree to offer processes for review and remedy in case of arbitrary selections in contract awards.

“The Parties agree to develop an ambitious, wide-ranging and balanced economic partnership.”

The UK has rejected the free movement of people between the EU and the UK. The parties have agreed on new mobility arrangements based on full reciprocity and non-discrimination among the EU’s Member States. These arrangements should not nullify the commitments they have made with respect to business-related temporary entries and stays. The parties have agreed to implement visa-free travel for short visits. They’ve also agreed to consider entry and stay conditions for research, study, training and youth exchanges, and to consider coordination of social security. The parties have agreed to investigate the  possibility of facilitating border crossings for legitimate travel and to consider judicial  cooperation in matters such as matrimonial and parental responsibility. The parties maintain their commitment to current international family law instruments to which they are parties. The UK intends to accede to the 2007 Hague Maintenance Convention.

“The Parties are committed to preserving financial stability, market integrity, investor and consumer protection and fair competition.”

In the area of transport, the parties agree to form a Comprehensive Air Transport Agreement to guarantee passenger and cargo air connectivity. They will also establish arrangements to maintain high standards of aviation safety and security through cooperation with each other and with EASA and the UK’s Civil Aviation Authority. They agree to take steps to ensure that freight and passenger road transport operators enjoy comparable market access. They will also give attention to arrangements for private motorist travel. They have agreed to establish bilateral arrangements for cross-border rail services. In the maritime transport sector, the international legal framework supports passenger and cargo connectivity. The parties will take steps to ensure market access for international maritime transport services. Maritime safety and security will necessitate cooperation between the UK and the EU and the exchange of information between their respective maritime safety agencies.

“The Parties recognise the importance of global cooperation to address issues of shared economic, environmental and social interest.”

In the area of energy, the parties agree to provide for competitive markets and non-discriminatory access to markets to ensure delivery of electricity and gas supplies. They will also put in place a framework to enable technical cooperation within the sector. The parties agree on the need for a broad Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community and the UK, to promote cooperation between EURATOM and UK authorities. The UK will participate as a third country in the EU’s monitoring and information-exchange systems for environmental radioactivity. In the area of fishing, the parties agree to cooperate both bilaterally and internationally to promote the industry’s sustainability and the health of the marine environment. The parties recognize the necessity of a new fisheries agreement within the context of the overall economic partnership. They will undertake to conclude the agreement by 1 July 2020.

“With a view to Europe’s security and the safety of their respective citizens, the Parties should establish a broad, comprehensive and balanced security partnership.”

To ensure a level playing field for open and fair competition, the parties have agreed to establish provisions building on those articulated in the Withdrawal Agreement and aligned with their overall economic relationship. In areas such as state aid, competition, social and employment standards, environmental standards and relevant tax matters, the parties will need to define their commitments with precision. The commitments will have to articulate standards and provide mechanisms for implementation, enforcement and dispute settlement.

“The future relationship will provide for comprehensive, close, balanced and reciprocal law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.”

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Brexit Initial Provisions

The future relationship will be supported by commitment to shared values including human rights, democratic principles and the rule of law. The parties also share a commitment to multilateralism. Because the relationship will require data flows between the parties, they will provide high levels of protection for personal data.

Both will undertake to adopt a transfer regime for personal data by the end of 2020. The parties have shared interests in scientific innovation, overseas development, and civil protection so will define conditions necessary for the UK to participate in EU programs, including UK participation in European Research Infrastructure Consortiums.

The UK and EU both maintain a commitment to pursuing a reconciliation program for Northern Ireland and agree to participate in dialogue and exchanges to cooperate in areas of shared interest. 

“The Union and United Kingdom are determined to work together to safeguard the rules-based international order, the rule of law and promotion of democracy.”

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A Framework for Post-Brexit

The EU and UK have agreed to take an ambitious approach to their future relationship based on their shared values and interests. It will recognize each party’s principles and will seek to ensure both the EU’s autonomy and integrity and the UK’s sovereignty. It will aim to protect the European Union’s single market and will respect the result of the UK’s 2016 referendum which decided that UK’s decision to go ahead with Brexit .

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Awal Pagi Waktu Barakah

عَنْ صَخْرٍ الْغَامِدِيِّ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ لِأُمَّتِي فِي بُكُورِهَا وَكَانَ إِذَا بَعَثَ سَرِيَّةً أَوْ جَيْشًا بَعَثَهُمْ مِنْ أَوَّلِ النَّهَارِ وَكَانَ صَخْرٌ رَجُلًا تَاجِرًا وَكَانَ يَبْعَثُ تِجَارَتَهُ مِنْ أَوَّلِ النَّهَارِ فَأَثْرَى وَكَثُرَ مَالُهُ
قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُد وَهُوَ صَخْرُ بْنُ وَدَاعَةَ

Dari Shakhr Al Ghamidi, dari Nabi SAW, baginda mengucapkan: “ALLAAHUMMA BAARIK LI UMMATII FII BUKUURIHAA (Ya Allah, berkatilah bagi umatku di awal pagi hari mereka). Dan baginda apabila mengirim expedisi atau pasukan baginda mengirim mereka di awal siang (awal pagi). Dan Shakhr adalah seorang pedagang dan ia mengirim perdagangannya di awal siang, maka hartanya bertambah banyak. Abu Daud berkata; ia adalah Shakhr bin Wada’ah. (Sunan Abu Daud No: 2239) Status: Hadis Sahih
Dan adalah Shakhr seorang pedagang; ia mengirimkan perniagaannya dari awal siang (pagi hari), maka ia pun menjadi kaya raya dan banyak harta”.

Pengajaran:

  1. Awal pagi adalah waktu yang banyak keberkahan dari Allah.
  2. Rasulullah mendoakan umatnya keberkatan pada setiap waktu pagi.

اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ لِأُمَّتِي فِي بُكُورِهَا

(Ya Allah, berkatilah bagi umatku di awal pagi hari mereka)

  1. Hadis ini menunjukkan bahawa waktu awal pagi adalah waktu penting untuk melaksanakan kerja-kerja penting dan utama. Elakkan waktu awal pagi dengan kerja yang kurang manfaatnya seperti tidur selepas subuh.
  2. Shakhr al-Ghamidi menjadi kaya raya dan banyak harta antaranya kerana ia memulakan perniagaan di awal pagi.

Ayuh rebut dan manfaatkan waktu penuh keberkatan di awal pagi dengan melakukan kerja bermanfaat seperti waktu untuk belajar, waktu untuk bekerja dan berniaga.

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