The loading system is on the bow of the ship which allows the export tanker to load safely from various platforms, regardless of weather conditions. However, based on location, there’s usually specified in terminal handbook (FPSO operating handbook) which clarify under which circumstances the offloading / loading operations are aborted / prohibited.
SPM is an offshore loading buoy where export tanker can connect to transfer hydrocarbon.
- It can handle any size of incoming vessel
- The buoy body, mooring and anchoring elements, product transfer system and other component make up a SPM.
- This allow export tanker to freely position itself around the mooring point making it less affected by weather condition.
After the introduction of DP (Dynamic Position) in the 1980s, the Ugland Kongsberg Offshore Loading System was introduced. This less expensive option can only be used with dynamically position shuttle tankers.
In 1993, Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system was introduced.
Introduced in the late 1990s, Single Anchor Loading (SAL) is used primarily in shallow water and in good weather condition.
- SAL is simple, cost effective (compared to STL)
First carried out in 1991, requires the export tanker to connect to the stern of the floating system. In this case, DP is required to monitor the position of the 2 units.
DP System (Dynamic Positioning System)
It is a computerized steering and positioning system which serves to keep the vessel on position in some of the harshest environments.
- It monitors wind, currents, tides and the location of thrusters and adjusts the position of the vessel using pitch propellers and lateral thrusters.
3 classes of DP systems
- Class one vessels have one set of maneuvering and computer systems. There’s no redundancy, which means that there is no backup system in place. Cons: If one system fails, the whole system fails. This system work primarily in calm weather conditions.
- DP2. This one have redundancy. If one component fails, there is a backup component for all active systems. The North Sea requires DP2 vessels or greater.
- DP3. New vessels are equipped with DP3 which have to withstand fire or flood in one compartment while keeping the system running.
My notes from RIGZONE
Categories: Oil & Gas Notes