Khalifa Abu Bakr – The blasphemy

Abu Bakr felt outraged at this blasphemy. In a fit of anger Abu Bakr slapped him in the face and said: “Were it not for the treaty between the Muslims and the Jews, I would have cut off your head, you enemy of Allah.” Finhas went to the Holy Prophet and complained that Abu Bakr had struck him on the face. When put to explanation, Abu Bakr said, “This enemy of Allah spoke blasphemy. He alleged that Allah was poor and they were rich. At such insolence against Allah I could not control myself, and I hit him.”

Revelation of the Holy Quran. Finhas denied the charge leveled against him by Abu Bakr. A revelation, however, confirmed what Abu Bakr had alleged. According to the revelation it was said that Allah had heard the speech of those who had said that Allah was poor and they were rich. About Abu Bakr’s anger, the following verses were revealed: “And you will certainly hear from those Who received the Book before you and from the polytheists much that is wrong, But if you preserve and fear God, That is the steadfastness of things.”

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set

Khalifa Abu Bakr & Banu Mustaliq

The Banu Mustaliq. The Banu Mustaliq, a branch of Banu Khuza’a occupied the territory of Qadid on the Red Sea shore between Jeddah and Rabigh. In 527 C.E. news was brought to Madina that the Banu Mustaliq in alliance with some other tribes were gathering to make a raid on Madina. The policy of the Holy Prophet was that the Muslims should not lose the initiative in such cases, and should take such tribes by surprise. Another aspect of the policy was that action against individual tribes should be taken before they could effect an alliance.

Expedition against Banu Mustaliq. In pursuance of this policy, the Holy Prophet decided to lead an expedition to Banu Mustaliq secretly and immediately. In the Muslim force that was mustered, Abu Bakr was the standard bearer of the Muhajireen. By forced marches the Muslim force reached Muraisi, where there was a spring from where Banu Mustaliq obtained their water supply. The Muslims cut off all communications by which other tribes could come to join Banu Mustaliq Banu Mustaliq were taken by surprise. They offered some resistance, but they lost heart and surrendered. In order to placate the tribe the Holy Prophet married a daughter of their chief Harith b Abi Dirar. Thereupon the entire tribe was converted to Islam.

Abdullah b Ubayye. The success of Muslims against Banu Mustaliq was marred by an unfortunate incident which exposed the hypocrisy of certain persons who professed to be Muslim but were otherwise hypocrites. In the matter of the watering of animals there was a dispute between two persons one of whom was a Muhajir and the other was Ansar. The Muhajir invoked the help of the Muhajirs while the Ansar invoked the help of the Ansar. Thereupon Abdullah b Ubayye a Muslim hypocrite said: “On reaching Madina we will drive away the Muhajreen from our city. By God our and their case is like the saying of old ‘Fatten your dog and he will eat you. “

Reaction of the Holy Prophet. On hearing of this outburst of Abdullah b Ubayye, the Holy Prophet felt much annoyed but he suppressed his anger, and ordered an immediate return to Madina Some of the companions volunteered to cut off the head of the hypocrite. The Holy Prophet, however, remained silent. The son of Abdullah b Ubayye waited on the Holy Prophet and said, “I understand you are thinking of killing my father for his insolence. If some body else kills my father, it will be incumbent on me to rake revenge and kill his murderer, and thus one Muslim will be killed. If you are annoyed with my father and want him to be killed, command me, and I will kill him myself.” The Holy Prophet was impressed with the loyalty of the young man to Islam, and assured him that he contemplated no action against his father.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set

Khalifa Abu Bakr – Abu Bakr and Finhas the Jew

The Jews of Madina. In Madina there was a considerable number of Jews They were wealthy, controlled the trade, and commanded great influence. The Holy Prophet followed the policy of ‘live and let live’. He accordingly entered into a treaty with the Jews. According to the terms of the treaty the Jews were to enjoy religious freedom and there was to be no interference in religious affairs. The Muslims and the Jews were to be on friendly terms, and were to help each other in the promotion of objects of mutual interest. It was stipulated that Muslims and the Jews would help each other in case of an attack by an enemy. No party was to give protection to the Quraish, and in case the Quraish invaded Madina, both the Muslims and the Jews were to join hands in the defense of the city.

Betrayal of the Jews. The Jews knew that in their holy books there were references to the advent of a prophet in Arabia. They were however under the impression that the prophet would rise from their midst. When the Holy Prophet rose from the ranks of the Quraish in Makkah, the Jews recognized in him all the signs of prophethood foretold in their sacred books. When the Holy Prophet came to Madina the Jews thought that he would be subservient to them and would acknowledge their supremacy. When the Holy Prophet followed an independent policy, the Jews followed the policy of betrayal and embarked on a campaign of ridicule.

Abu Bakr and Finhas the Jew. One day Abu Bakr came across Finhas, one of the Jewish rabbis. Abu Bakr invited him to Islam, but Finhas ridiculed the offer. The Holy Prophet had enjoined on the Muslims to spend in the way of Allah, and according to the Holy Quran this was to be a loan against God repayable manifold the original amount. The Muslims were forbidden to charge interest. According to the religion of the Jews, interest was permissible. In this context Finhas argued: “We are rich, but your Allah is poor for He asks loan of us. Had He been independent of us He would not have given us interest, which He has denied to you.”

Khalifa Abu Bakr & Banu Nadeer

Banu Nadeer. Banu Nadeer were Jews who resided at Madina. Muhammad (peace be on him) entered into a pact of alliance with them. The Jews in spite of their pact with the Muslims resorted to intrigues. They opened secret negotiations with the Quraish against the Muslims. They deliberately mispronounced the sacred words of the Holy Quran in order to pervert their meanings. The Jewish poets wrote satirical poems against Islam and The Holy Prophet.

Tragedy of Bir Ma’una. On the invitation of certain tribes, the Holy Prophet sent them a party of seventy missionaries to teach them the precepts of Islam. Before these men could reach their destination they were waylaid, and martyred by the tribes of Banu Sulaym. Only one man Amr b Umayya escaped the tragedy of Bir Ma una. While returning to Madina, he met two men of Banu ‘Amir, and thinking that they were enemies killed them. Banu ‘Amir were however allied with the Muslims and Banu Nadeer, and the Muslims and the Jews had to pay the blood money of the two men who had been killed by ‘Amr under a mistake.

Holy Prophet’s visit to Banu Nadeer. The Holy Prophet decided to pay indemnity to Hanu ‘Amir. He along with his companions including Abu Bakr went to the quarter of Banu Nadeer, and asked them to pay their share of the indemnity in accordance with the terms of their alliance. The Jews expressed their readiness to pay their share. They made the Holy Prophet and his companions sit under a high wall, and deputed a Jew to throw a big stone on the Holy Prophet from the top of the wall. It was revealed to the Holy Prophet that the Jews meant mischief. Immediately he rose from his seat and left for Madina.

Expulsion of Banu Nadeer. On this treachery of Banu Nadeer, the Holy Prophet served an ultimatum on them to leave Madina within ten days. Abdullah b Ubayya, the leader of the hypocrites asked the Jews to put up a fight against the Muslims and assured them of his help. After the expiry of ten days, the Holy Prophet mustered a force including Abu Bakr and marched to the quarter of Banu Nadeer. The Banu Nadeer shut themselves in their strongholds, and waited for help from the hypocrites. No help came and after a fortnight, the Banu Nadeer surrendered, and asked for terms. They were asked to leave Madina, and could take away whatever movable property, other than arms, they could carry. They pulled down their houses with their own hands and left for Khyber. Whatever property was left by them was distributed among the Muslims.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set

Khalifa Abu Bakr – Life at Madina

Quba. When the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr reached in the neighborhood of Madina their first stop was at Quba, a suburb of Madina. As they arrived at Quba the people crowded round them. As the people had not seen them before, it was difficult for them to know as to who out of the two was the Holy Prophet. Seeing this predicament of the people, Abu Bakr stood up and shielded the Holy Prophet with his mantle. Thereupon the people came to know who was the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr stayed at Quba for a few days, and then they proceeded to Yathrib which was named Madinat-un-Nabi or Madina in the honor of the arrival of the Holy Prophet.

Reception at Madina. At Madina the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr were given a royal welcome. The maidens of Madina mounted on the roof tops of their houses and sang: “From the hill tops of the south, The full moon cloth arise, With what a lovely call, Unto God doth he call, And we thank him for it all. O you sent by Allah the Rahman We bow to thy demand.”

The change. The world of Madina was quite different from the world of Makkah. At Makkah the Muslims were a persecuted people, at Madina they were the masters of their destiny. The life at Madina was a great break with the past. The days of trial, tribulations and tortures were now over, the Muslims were now set on the path of fulfillment. They were now poised to build a new commonwealth and a new ideal society.

Construction of the mosque. The first thing that the Holy Prophet called upon the Muslims to do at Madina was to build a mosque which was to be the prayer house as well as the community center. The owner of the plot of land selected for the purpose of building the mosque insisted on donating the land free. The Holy Prophet, however, paid the price at the market rate, and this price was paid by Abu Bakr. All the Muslims including the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr participated in the construction of the mosque. As the Muslims labored, they chanted: “There is no life, but the life of the next world, O God have mercy on the Muhajreen and the Ansar.”

Within a few months the mosque was completed. It was square in form each side measuring fifty yards. It faced towards the north, and had three gates on each of the remaining three sides. Adjoining the mosque, apartments were constructed for the household of the Holy Prophet, and for some of the companions, including Abu Bakr. The mosque was a monument of simplicity. The walls were made of mud bricks, and the roofs were supported by trunks of palm trees. The apartments for the houses of the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr were simple structures, and blankets of camel hair were hung at the doors. The courtyard in each case was hardly six to seven paces in length, and the length of the rooms did not extend beyond ten paces.

Rehabilitation of the Muhajireen. To rehabilitate the migrants from Makkah in the society of Madina, the Holy Prophet established a fraternity among the Muslims of Makkah and those of Madina whereunder each migrant was paired with an Ansar of corresponding status. The brotherhood thus established was unique in the annals of mankind. So strong and cordial were these bonds that they even surpassed the relationship of blood. In this roll of brotherhood, Abu Bakr was paired with Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari. Abu Bakr’s relationship with his brother-in-Islam was most cordial which was further strengthened when Abu Bakr married Habiba, a daughter of Khaarijah.

Sukh. Khaarijah had his house at Sukh, a suburb of Madina. Abu Bakr also settled at Sukh. When the family of Abu Bakr came from Makkah they were lodged in the apartments adjoining the Prophet’s mosque at Madina. Abu Bakr visited them frequently but he continued to have his personal residence at Sukh. He usually walked from Sukh to Madina on foot. Sometimes he rode on a horse.

Change in climate. The climate of Makkah was dry, but the climate of Madina was damp. That adversely affected the health of the emigrants. On arrival at Madina most of the emigrants fell sick. Abu Bakr also suffered from fever for several days. During his sickness he was attended to by Khaarijah and his family.

Trade in Madina. At Makkah, Abu Bakr was a trader in cloth. He started the same business at Madina. He was a wholesaler. He had his store at Sukh, and from there cloth was supplied to the market at Madina. Abu Bakr was a shrewd businessman, and we have reasons to hold that his business flourished at Madina in the same way as it did at Makkah. From the accounts, that have come down to us, it appears that at the time of his conversion to Islam Abu Bakr had an amount of 40,000 Dirhams, and that at the time of his death he left no money. These accounts tend to give the impression that after conversion to Islam, Abu Bakr did not attend to business, and subsisted all the years from 610 to 634 C.E. on the original amount of 40,000 Dirhams. That is not the correct position. As a matter of fact, Abu Bakr remained active in business throughout his life. It is related that even alter he had been elected as a Caliph he took the cloth to the market for disposal. At the insistence of Umar, and Abu Ubaida he suspended his business activities and accepted a meager allowance from the treasury. This shows that up to the time of his election as the Caliph, Abu Bakr remained active in business.

Abu Bakr as the Chief Counselor. After attending to business it was the wont of Abu Bakr to spend his spare time in the company of the Holy Prophet. Abu Bakr always acted as the ‘Second of the Two’. He was the Chief Counselor of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet consulted Abu Bakr on all important matters, and the advice tendered by him was usually accepted. The Holy Prophet used to say that Abu Bakr was the best counselor. At meetings Abu Bakr was always assigned a special place to the right of the Holy Prophet.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set

Khalifa Abu Bakr – The Road to Yathrib

The party. The party that book the road to Yathrib consisted of four persons. The Holy Prophet and the guide Abdullah b. Ariqat rode on one camel. Abu Bakr and his servant Ibn Fuhayra rode on another camel. The party struck off by a track considerably to the left of the common road. Hurrying westward, the party soon gained the vicinity of the sea shore. The party traveled during the night, and spent the day resting in some sheltered place. They traveled through unfrequented ways. It was an arduous, and nerve racking journey. They were haunted by the fear of the pursuit of the Quraish, but they were upheld by the faith that God would protect them.

Suraqah b Malik. The Quraish had offered a reward of one hundred she camels to any one who could pursue and apprehend the Holy Prophet and his companion. Suraqah b Malik an expert horseman scoured the country side in search of the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. It was reported to him that four men had been seen moving to the west along the sea shore. Suraqah felt convinced that these four men must be the Holy Prophet and his party. He pursued the party. After some fast riding he came to within seeing distance. He felt happy that these were the men he was in search of. At this stage his horse stumbled and he fell on the ground. He resorted to divination through arrows, and the oracle did not favor his advance. Ignoring the oracle he remounted the horse and galloped fast until he came within talking distance of the Holy Prophet and his party. Seeing Suraqah, Abu Bakr felt uneasy. The Holy Prophet counseled him not to worry, for God was with them. At this stage the horse of Suraqah stumbled again. He resorted to divination, and once again the verdict was unfavorable. Suraqah now felt that some supernatural power protected the Holy Prophet and his party and it would be futile to contend against supernatural powers. He remounted the horse and galloped again When he came close to the party, he shouted that he was not coming as a pursuer; he was coming as a friend. He said that he wanted that a certificate of immunity should be granted to him. Suraqah approached the party and the Holy Prophet asked Abu Bakr to write for Suraqah a document of immunity. With this document, Suraqah returned to Makkah. In the way he met some other persons who were in pursuit of the Holy Prophet and his party. He made them turn back saying that the party had not gone that way. Suraqah presented this document at the time of the conquest of Makkah, and he was duly rewarded. He was also converted to Islam, and he regarded this conversion as the greatest reward.

Umm Ma’bad. After the encounter with Suraqah the party reached the encampment of Umm Ma bad. Umm Ma’bad was a gracious old lady. She welcomed the party. Her flock was in the pasture, and with her was a goat which was dry. She therefore regretted that she was not in a position to offer them any milk. Taking the name of Allah, the Holy Prophet touched the udders of the goat, and plenty of milk cowed therefrom which was not only sufficient for the guests, but considerable quantity was left for the hostess as well. Umm Ma’bad wondered at the miracle. She wanted the party to stay for the night with her, but they thanked her saying that they had a long way to go and they had to travel during the night.

Zubayr. When the party were two or three stages from Madina, they came to the main road. Now they were out of the danger of pursuit. Here they met a caravan from Syria led by Zubayr. Zubayr presented the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr some garments that he had brought with them to Syria. He told them that the people of Yathrib were keenly awaiting their arrival.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set

Khalifa Abu Bakr – Migration to Madina

Second of the two

Hijrat. In 622 C.E. at the invitation of the people of Yathrib, it was decided by the Holy Prophet that the Muslims should migrate from Makkah to Yathrib. In the name of religion the Muslims were to leave their homes and hearths, and begin a new life in another city. The Muslims were to leave for Yathrib in batches.

Abu Bakr’s preparations. Abu Bakr sought permission to migrate to Yathrib, but the Holy Prophet bade him wait, for it was possible that he might have a companion. Abu Bakr took this hint to imply that he was to accompany the Holy Prophet. Had at Abu Bakr felt happy and honored at the prospect of being a companion of the Holy Prophet on the journey to Yathrib. He bought two camels, and made other preparations for the journey.

The call to migrate. The Quraish of Makkah made a plot to murder the Holy Prophet. Allah frustrated their design. One hot afternoon, the Holy Prophet called at the house of Abu Bakr, and gave him the tidings that the time for their migration had arrived. Allah had given the order: Make war on the persecutors Till persecution is no more, And religion is for Allah only. At night in the cover of darkness, the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr left Makkah, but they did not take the road to Yathrib. They moved in the opposite direction, and took refuge in a cave in Mount Thaur some five miles south of Makkah.

In the cave of Mt. Thaur. When the Quraish came to know that the Holy Prophet had left Makkah they were much disturbed. They offered a reward of a hundred she camels to any one who found the Holy Prophet, and brought him back to Makkah. During the day, Abdullah the son of Abu Bakr would listen to the plans and talks of the Quraish, and at night he would carry the news to the fugitives in the cave. Asma the daughter of Abu Bakr brought them meals every day. Aamir a servant of Abu Bakr would bring a flock of goats to the mouth of the cave every night where they were milked.

Second of the two. The Quraish sent search parties in all directions. One party came dangerously close to the entrance to the cave. Abu Bakr had a feeling of great uneasiness at the impending dancer The Holy Prophet consoled him, and said “Fear not, for Allah is with us. ” And verily Allah was with them. Miraculously a spider wove its nest at the entrance to the cave, and seeing the nest the search party turned away after it had reached the very mouth of the cave. This event is referred to in the Holy Quran in the following terms: “He being the second of the two When they were in the cave, And when Muhammad said to his companion, ‘Grieve not, surely God is with us’. Then God came to their help. And protected them with an army Which they saw not.” {9:40}

Journey to Yath’rib. The Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr remained in the cave for three days and three nights. By this time the Quraish gave up the search in despair, and the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr decided to proceed to Yathrib. The servant of Abu Bakr brought two camels for them to ride upon for the journey. Asma the daughter of Abu Bakr brought a bag of provisions. She had forgotten to bring a string to tie the bag. She tore her girdle and tied the bag with it. For this ingenuity, the Holy Prophet conferred on her the title ‘She of the Girdle.” The party consisting of the Holy Prophet, Abu Bakr, a servant of Abu Bakr, and a guide set of by a circuitous route to Yathrib by way of Tihama on the coast of the Red Sea.

Account of Asma. Asma has related that when the Holy Prophet and her father left for Yathrib and she returned to Makkah, a party of the Quraish headed by Abu Jahl called at their house and made inquiries regarding the whereabouts of Abu Bakr. When Asma told them that she was unaware of the whereabouts of her father, Abu Jahl slapped her so violently on the face that her earring flew off. She has also related that Abu Bakr took all the available money with him. Abu Qabafa the father of Abu Bakr who had lost his eye sight said that Abu Bakr had not done well in taking with him all the money, and not leaving anything for the family. Asma took some pebbles, and put them in a niche where Abu Bakr used to keep money. She covered the pebbles with a piece of cloth, and leading her grandfather to the niche said, “Put your hand on the money, grandfather.” Abu Qahafa did so, and felt satisfied that Abu Bakr had left ample money for the family.

Source:  Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set