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Zulkifli (Dhul-Kifl) : Stories of the Prophets

Allah the Almighty declared: And (remember) Ishmael and Idris (Enoch) and Dhul-Kifl, all were from among those who observe patience. Surah 21: 85-86

Immediately following Job’s story in the Qur’an, Almighty Allah also directed: And remember Our slaves, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, (all) owners of strength (in worshiping Us) and (also) of religious understanding. Verily, We did choose them by granting them (a good thing, – i.e. ) the remembrance of the home in the Hereafter and they used to make the people remember it, and also they used to invite the people to obey Allah and to do good deeds for the Hereafter. And they are in Our Sight, verily, of the chosen and the best! And remember Ishmael, Elisha, and Dhul-Kifl, all are among the best. Surah 38: 45-48

It is obvious from his being mentioned and praised in the Glorious Qur’an along with those other prophets that Dhul-Kifl was a prophet.

However, some of the Qur’anic commentators assumed that he was not a prophet but that he was righteous and strictly just.

The Meaning of Dhul-Kifl

Ibn Jarir narrated that he was not a prophet but he was a righteous man. He supported his people to suffice their needs and administered justice among them. That is why he was called Dhul-Kifl .Dhul-Kifl literally means “possessor of. or giving. a double requital or portion”. (Source: A. Yusuf All, The Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary, footnote 2743 to murak 2 1:85.) (Editorm note)

Ar-Rass (The People of Ar-Rass) – Qur’anic Verses Describing Ar-Rass

Allah Almighty revealed: And Noah’s people, when they denied the Messengers We drowned them, and We made them as a sign for mankind. And We have prepared a painful torment for the Zalimeen (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.). And (also) ‘Ad and Thamud, and the dwellers of Ar-Rass, and many generations in between. And for each of them We put forward examples (as proofs and lessons, etc.), and each (of them) We brought to utter ruin (because of their disbelief and evil deeds). Surah 25: 37-39

Allah, the Exalted also revealed: Denied before them (i.e., these pagans of Mecca who denied you, 0 Muhammad) the people of Noah, and the dwellers of Ar-Rass, and Thamud, and ‘Ad, and Pharaoh, and the brethren of Lot, and the dwellers of the Wood, and the people of Tubba’; everyone of them denied (their) Messengers, so My Threat took effect. Surah 50: 12-14

These verses indicate that the dwellers of Ar-Rass were destroyed as were the other people who refused to believe in the prophets of Allah.

Ar-Rass (The People of Ar-Rass) – The Destruction of Ar-Rass

Ibn Jarir stated that the dwellers of Ar-Rass were the people of one of Thamud’s villages. Allah sent a prophet to them called Huzlah Ibn Safwan. They denied and killed him, so Allah destroyed them.

Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Al-Hassan narrated: “The dwellers of Ar-Rass had a well sufficing them and their land. They also had a just and good-hearted king. When he died, they were much grieved for him. After four days Satan took his form and said: ‘I was not dead, but I kept absent from you to see your reaction.’ They were very joyful. He commanded them to set up a curtain between him and then and told them that he would never die. A great number of them believed him and were fascinated with and worshipped him. Then Allah sent them a prophet telling them that it was Satan who was addressing them from behind the curtain. He forbade them to worship him and commanded them to worship only Allah and no partner with Him. In spite of that, they killed their prophet and threw his body into a well. Therefore, Allah destroyed them and their homes.”

The Prophets’ Message

All that we know about these people is what Almighty Allah has told us in the Glorious Quran: And put forward to them a similitude; the (story of the) dwellers of the town. It is said that the town was Antioch (Antakiya), when there came Messengers to them. When We sent them two Messengers, they belied them both, so We reinforced them with a third, and they said: “Verily! We have been sent to you as Messengers.”

They (people of the town) said: “You are only human beings like ourselves and the Most Beneficent (Allah) has revealed nothing, you are only telling lies.”

The Messengers said: “Our Lord knows that we have been sent as Messengers to you, – And our duty is only to convey plainly (the Message).”

They (people) said: “For us, we see an evil omen from you, if you cease not, we will surely stone you, and a painful torment will touch you from us.”

They (Messengers) said: “Your evil omens be with you! (Do you call it “evil omen”) because you are admonished? Nay, but you are a people Musrifun (transgressing all bounds by committing all kinds of great sins, and by disobeying Allah).” Surah 36: 13-19

The Believing Man

And there came running from the farthest part of the town, a man, saying: “0 my people! Obey the Messengers; obey those who ask no wages of you (for themselves), and who are rightly guided. And why should I not worship Him (Allah Alone) Who has created me and to Whom you shall be returned. Shall I take besides Him aliah (gods), if the Most Beneficent (Allah) intends me any harm, their intercession will be of no use whatsoever, nor can they save me? Then verily, I should be in plain error. Verily! I have believed in your Lord, so listen to me!”

It was said (to him when the disbelievers killed him). “Enter Paradise.”

He said: “Would that my people knew! That my Lord (Allah) has forgiven me, and made me of the honored ones!” Surah 36: 20-27

The Punishment

And We sent not against his people after him (the man) a host from heaven, nor do We send (such a thing). It was but one shout and lo! They (all) were silent (dead-destroyed).

Alas for mankind! There never came a Messenger to them but they used to mock at him. Do they not see how many of the generations We have destroyed before them? Verily, they will not return to them. Surah 36: 28-31

 

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Ayoub (Job) : Stories of the Prophet

Job’s Family History

Ibn Ishaaq stated that he was a man of Rum. His name was Job, Ibn Mose, Ibn Razeh, Ibn Esau, Ibn Isaac , Ibn Abraham . Someone else said he was Job, Ibn Mose, Ibn Rimil, Ibn Esau, Ibn Isaac, Ibn Jacob. There have also been other statements on his lineage. Ibn Asaker narrated that his mother was a daughter of Lot . It was said, also, that his father was one who believed in Abraham when he was cast into the fire.

The first opinion is the most plausable, because he was a descendant of Abraham’s offspring as Allah Almighty declared: And that was Our proof which We gave Abraham against his people. We raise whom We will in degrees. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing. And We bestowed upon him Isaac and Jacob, each of them We guided, and before him, We guided Noah, and among his progeny David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron. Thus do We reward the good-doers. Surah 6: 83-84

Allah’s Praises of Job

Allah the Almighty praised His worshiper Job in His Glorious Qur’an: Truly! We found him patient. How excellent (a) slave! Verily, he was ever oft-returning in repentance (to Us)! Surah 38: 44

Job was repentant, remembering Allah with thankfulness, patience, and steadfastness. This was the cause of his rescue and the secret of Allah’s praising him.

A group of angels were discussing Allah’s other human creatures, how those who were humble earned Allah’s pleasure, while those who were arrogant incurred His displeasure. One of the angels remarked: ‘The best creature on earth today is Job, a man of noble character who displays great patience and always remembers his Generous Lord. He is an excellent model for the worshipers of Allah. In return, his Lord has blessed him with a long life and plenty of riches, yet he is never haughty or selfish. His family, his servants, as well as the needy and the poor share in his good fortune; he feeds and clothes the poor and buys slaves to set them free. He makes those who receive his charity feel as if they are favoring him, so kind and gentle is he.”

Iblis’s Jealousy of Job

Iblis, overhearing all this, became annoyed. He planned to tempt Job to corruption and disbelief, so he hastened to him. He tried to distract Job from his prayers by whispering to him about the good things in life, but Job was a true believer and would not let evil thoughts tempt him. This disturbed Iblis more; thus he began to hate Job even more.

Iblis Destroys Job’s Wealth

Iblis complained to Allah about Job. He said that although he was continuously glorifying Allah, he was not doing so out of his sincerity but to satisfy Allah so that his wealth should not be taken away. It was all a show, all out of greed. “If You remove his wealth then You will find that his tongue will no longer mention Your name and his praying will stop.”

Allah told Iblis that Job was one of His most sincere devotees. He did not worship Him because of the favors; his worship stemmed from his heart and had nothing to do with material things. But to prove to Iblis the depth of Job’s sincerity and patience, Allah allowed him to do whatever he and his helpers wished with Job’s wealth.

Iblis was very happy. He gathered his helpers and set about destroying Job’s cattle, servants, and farms until he was left with no possessions. Rubbing his hands in glee, Iblis appeared before Job in the guise of a wise old man and said to him: “All your wealth is lost. Some people say that it is because you gave too much charity and that you are wasting your time with your continuous prayers to Allah. Others say that Allah has brought this upon you in order to please your enemies. If Allah had the capacity to prevent harm, then He would have protected your wealth.”

True to his belief, Job replied: “What Allah has taken away from me belongs to Him. I was only its trustee for a while. He gives to whom He wills and withholds from whom He wills.” With these words, Job again prostrated to his Lord.

Iblis Destroys Job’s Children

When Iblis saw this, he felt frustrated, so he again addressed Allah: “I have stripped Job of all his possessions, but he still remains grateful to You. However, he is only hiding his disappointment, for he places great store by his many children. The real test of a parent is through his children. You will then see how Job will reject You.”

Allah granted Iblis authority, but warned him that it would not reduce Job’s faith in his Lord nor his patience.

Iblis again gathered his helpers and set about his evil deeds. He shook the foundation of the house in which Job’s children were living and sent the building crashing, killing all of them. Then he went to Job disguised as a man who had come to sympathize with him. In a comforting tone he said to Job: ‘The circumstances under which your children died were sad. Surely, your Lord is not rewarding you properly for all your prayers.” Having said this, Iblis waited anxiously, hoping Job was now ready to reject Allah.

But again Job disappointed him by replying: “Allah sometimes gives and sometimes takes. He is sometimes pleased and sometimes displeased with our deeds. Whether a thing is beneficial or harmful to me, I will remain firm in my belief and remain thankful to my Creator.” Then Job prostrated to his Lord. At this Iblis was extremely vexed.

Iblis Destroys Job’s Health

Iblis again called on Allah. “0 my Lord, Job’s wealth is gone, his children are dead, but he is still healthy in body, and as long as he enjoys good health he will continue to worship You in the hope of regaining his wealth and producing more children. Grant me authority over his body so that I may weaken it. He will surely neglect worshipping You and will thus become disobedient.”

Allah wanted to teach Iblis a lesson that Job was a devoted servant of his Lord, so He granted Iblis his third request but placed a condition: “I give you authority over his body but not over his soul, intellect, or heart, for in these places reside the knowledge of Me and My religion.”

Armed with this new authority, Iblis began to take revenge on Job’s body and filled it with disease until it was reduced to mere skin and bone and he suffered severe pain. But through all the suffering Job remained strong in his faith, patiently bearing all the hardships without complaining. Allah’s righteous servant did not despair or turn to others for help but remained hopeful of Allah’s mercy. Even close relatives and friends deserted him. Only his kind, loving wife stayed with him. In his hour of need, she showered her kindness on him and cared for him. She remained his sole companion and comforter through the many years of his suffering.

Job’s Life – Summary

Ibn Asaker narrated: “Job was a man having much wealth of all kinds: beasts, slaves, sheep, vast lands of Haran and many children. All those favors were taken from him and he was physically afflicted as well. Never a single organ was sound except his heart and tongue, with both of which he glorified Allah, the Almighty all the time day and night. His disease lasted for a long time until his visitors felt disgusted with him. His friends kept away from him, and people abstained from visiting him. No one felt sympathy for him except his wife. She took good care of him, knowing his former charity and pity for her.”

Job’s Prayer for Mercy

Therefore, Iblis became desperate. He consulted his helpers, but they could not advise him. They asked: “How is it that your cleverness cannot work against Job, yet you succeeded in misleading Adam, the father of man, out of Paradise?”

Iblis went to Job’s wife in the form of a man. “Where is your husband?” he asked her.

She pointed to an almost lifeless form crumpled on the bed and said: ‘There he is, suspended between life and death.”

Iblis reminded her of the days when Job had good health, wealth and children. Suddenly, the painful memory of years of hardship overcame her, and she burst into tears. She said to Job: “How long are you going to bear this torture from our Lord? Are we to remain without wealth, children or friends forever? Why don’t you call upon Allah to remove this suffering?”

Job sighed, and in a soft voice replied: “Iblis must have whispered to you and made you dissatisfied. Tell me, how long did I enjoy good health and riches?”

She replied: “For eighty years.”

Then Job asked: “How long am I suffering like this?”

She said: “For seven years.”

Job then told her: “In that case I am ashamed to call on my Lord to remove the hardship, for I have not suffered longer than the years of good health and plenty. It seems your faith has weakened and you are dissatisfied with the fate of Allah. If I ever regain health, I swear I will punish you with a hundred strokes! From this day onward, I forbid myself to eat or drink anything from your hand. Leave me alone and let my Lord do with me as He pleases.”

Crying bitterly and with a heavy heart, she had no choice but to leave him and seek shelter elsewhere. In this helpless state, Job turned to Allah, not to complain but to seek His mercy: “Verily, distress has seized me, and You are the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy.

Job’s Health is Restored

So We answered his call, and We removed the distress that was on him, and We restored his family to him (that he had lost), and the like thereof along with them – as a mercy from Ourselves and a Reminder for all who worship Us.” Surah 21: 83-84

Almighty Allah also instructed: And remember Our slave Job, when he invoked his Lord (saying): “Verily! Satan has touched me with distress (by losing my health) and torment (by losing my wealth)!” Allah said to him: “Strike the ground with your foot: This is a spring of water to wash in, cool and a (refreshing) drink.” And We gave him (back) his family, and along with them the like thereof, as a Mercy from Us, and a reminder for those who understand. Surah 38: 41-43

Job obeyed, and almost immediately his good health was restored. Meanwhile, his faithful wife could no longer bear to be parted from her husband and returned to him to beg his forgiveness, desiring to serve him. On entering her house, she was amazed at the sudden change: Job was again healthy! She embraced him and thanked Allah for His mercy.

Job was now worried, for he had taken an oath to punish her with a hundred strokes if he regained health, but he had no desire to hurt her. He knew if he did not fulfill the oath, he would be guilty of breaking a promise to Allah. Therefore, in His wisdom and mercy, Allah came to the assistance of His faithful servant, and advised him: And take in your hand a bundle of thin grass and strike therewith (your wife), and break not your oath.” Truly! We found him patient. How excellent (a) slave! Verily, he was ever oft-returning in repentance (to Us)!” Surah 38: 44

Prophet Muhammad’s Account About Job

Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet Muhammad said: “While Job was naked, taking a bath, a swarm of gold locusts fell on him, and he started collecting them in his garment. His Lord called him: ‘0 Job! Have I not made you too rich to need what you see?’ He said: ‘Yes, 0 Lord! But I cannot shun Your Blessings.”

 

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Yusuf (Joseph) : Stories of the Prophets

This is the most detailed and fascinating story in the Qur’an, involving both human weaknesses such as jealousy, hatred, pride, passion, deception, intrigue, cruelty, terror as well as noble qualities such as patience, loyalty, bravery, nobility, and compassion.

It is related that among the reasons for its revelation is that the Jews asked the Prophet Muhammad to tell them about Joseph , who was one of their old prophets. His story had been distorted in parts and marred in others with interpolations and exclusions. Therefore it was revealed in the Book of Allah (Qur’an), complete in its minute and careful details.

Allah the Almighty declared: We relate unto you (Muhammad) the best of stories through Our Revelations unto you, of this Qur’an. And before this (i.e. before the coming of Divine Inspiration to you), you were among those who knew nothing about it (the Qur’an). Surah 12: 3

Almighty Allah also decreed: Thus We relate to you (0 Muhammad) some information of what happened before. And indeed We have given you from Us a Reminder (this Qur’an). Whoever turns away from it (this Qur’an – i.e. does not believe in it, nor acts on its orders), verily, they will bear a heavy burden (of sins) on the Day of Resurrection. They will abide in that (state in the Fire of Hell), and evil indeed will it be that load for them on the Day of Resurrection. Surah 20:99-101

The story of Joseph moves in a stream from beginning to end; its substance and form are equally coherent. It inspires you with a feeling for the depth of Allah’s power and supremacy and the execution of His rulings despite the challenge of human intervention. And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of men know not. Surah 12: 21

This is what the story of Joseph confirms categorically, for it ends with comfort and marvels.

Summary of Joseph’s Story

Joseph lived all his life confronting schemes made by the people closest to him. His brothers plotted to kill him, but they amended it to exiling him. This happened to him while he was a boy. He was sold into the slave market in Egypt, where he was bought for a nominal sum. Then he fell victim to the attempted seduction by a great man’s wife who, when her wish was foiled, sent him to prison, where he remained for some time. In spite of all this, he at length approached close to the Egyptian throne and became the king’s chief minister. He then began his call to Allah from the position of the ruling authority.

Allah’s plans were carried out, and the matter ended. This is the substance (theme) of the story. As for the form (style) in which it is presented, it is a landmark of wonder.

The Story’s Presentation

The story is presented in a sequence of episodes. It gives you scene after scene and the transition is inspiring, informative, and stirring to the imagination. There are also artistic loopholes which leave it to the imagination of the reader to complete the sense, as well as the depth of the picture, the like of which no human artist can bring forth.

Joseph’s Childhood

The story begins with a dream and ends with its interpretation. As the sun appeared over the horizon, bathing the earth in its morning glory, Joseph , son of the Prophet Jacob , awoke from his sleep, delighted by a pleasant dream he had had. Filled with excitement, he ran to his father and related it. “0 my father! Verily, I saw (in a dream) eleven stars and the sun and the moon, I saw them prostrating themselves to me.” Surah 12: 4

His father’s face lit up. He foresaw that Joseph would be the one through whom the prophecy of his grandfather, Prophet Abraham , would be fulfilled, in that his offspring would keep the light of Abraham’s house alive and spread Allah’s message to mankind.

Therefore, it was narrated that Allah’s Messenger Muhammad was asked: “Who is the most honorable amongst the people?” He replied: ‘The most God-fearing.” The people said: “We do not want to ask you about this.” He said: “The most honorable person is Joseph Allah’s prophet, the son of Allah’s prophet, the son of the faithful friend of Allah (Abraham).”1

However, the father was well aware of the jealousy of Joseph’s brothers, so he warned him against telling his dream to his brothers: “0 my son! Relate not your vision to your brothers, lest they arrange a plot against you. Verily! Satan is to man an open enemy! Thus will your Lord choose you and teach you the interpretation of dreams (and other things) and perfect His Favor on you and on the offspring of Jacob, as He perfected it on your fathers, Abraham and Isaac aforetime! Verily, your Lord is All-Knowing, All-Wise. ” Surah 12: 5-6

Joseph heeded is father’s warning. He did not tell his brothers what he had seen. It is well known that they hated him so much that it was difficult for him to feel secure telling them what was in his heart and in his dreams.

Description of Joseph

Joseph was eighteen years old, very handsome and robust, with a gentle temperament. He was respectful, kind, and considerate. His brother Benjamin was equally pleasant. Both were from one mother, Rachel. Because of their refined qualities, the father loved the two more than his other children, and would not let them out of his sight. To protect them, he kept them busy with work in the house garden.

The Evil Plot of Joseph’s Brothers

The scene of Jacob and his son closes. Another opens on Joseph’s brothers plotting against him. “Truly, Joseph and his brother (Benjamin) are loved more by our father than we, but we are ‘Usbah (a storng group). Really, our father is in a plain error. Kill Joseph or cast him out to some (other) land, so that the favor of your father may be given to you alone, and after that you will be righteous folk (by intending repentance before committing the sin).”

One from among them said: “Kill not Joseph, but if you must do something, throw him down to the bottom of a well, he will be picked up by some caravan of travelers.” Surah 12: 8-10

The pages of the Old Testament say that Joseph told them his dream, whereas the Qur’an does not say that that happened. Had it been so, the brothers would have said so themselves. The Old Testament claims they had lost their own rights by him, and so they would kill him. Indeed Joseph kept his father’s order and did not tell his brothers about his vision.

In spite of this, his brothers sat down to conspire against him. One of them asked: “Why does our father love Joseph more than us?”

Another answered: “Perhaps because of his beauty.”

A third said: “Joseph and his brother occupied our father’s heart.”

The first complained: “Our father has gone all astray.”

One of them suggested a solution to the matter: kill Joseph. “Where should we kill him?”

“We should banish him away from these grounds.”

“We will send him to a distant land.”

“Why should we not kill him and have rest so that the favor of your father may be given to you alone?”

However, Judah (Yahudh), the eldest and most intelligent among them, said: “There is no need to kill him when all you want is to get rid of him. Look here, let us throw him into a well and he will be picked up by a passing caravan. They will take him with them to a distant land. He will disappear from your father’s sight and our purpose will be served with his exile. Then after that we shall repent for our crime and become good people once again.”

The discussion continued on the idea of dropping Joseph into a well, as it was seen as the safest solution. The plan to kill him was defeated; kidnap into a distant land was approved. It was the cleverest of ideas.

The Brothers Approach Jacob

Their next movement opened the scene between them and their father Jacob : They said. “0 our father! Why do you not trust us with Joseph, when we are indeed his well-wishers? Send him with us tomorrow to enjoy himself and play, and verily, we will take care of him.”

He (Jacob) said: “Truly, it saddens me that you should take him away. I fear lest a wolf should devour him, while you are careless of him.”

They said: “If a wolf devours him, while we are Usbah (a strong group) (to guard him), then surely, we are the losers. ” Surah 12: 11-14

Jacob suggested a point which had not occurred to them in their discussion: he feared that desert wolves would eat him! Did he imply the wolves within them, or did he mean the wild wolves? No one but Allah knows. They coaxed their father to send Joseph with them; he agreed under their pressure.

Joseph Thrown into the Well

They were excited that they could now get rid of Joseph for after this they could stand a better chance of receiving their father’s affection. On leaving home, they went directly to the well, as they had planned, on the pretext of drinking water. One of them put his arms around Joseph and held him tightly. Startled by this unusual behavior, Joseph struggled to free himself. More brothers rushed to hold him. One of them removed his shirt. Some more joined in to lift Joseph up and cast him into the deep well. Joseph’s piteous pleas made no difference to their cruel hearts.

Then Allah revealed to Joseph that he was safe and should not fear, for he would meet them again some day to remind them of what they had done.

There was water in the well which buoyed Joseph’s body, so he was not harmed. He sat lonely in the water, then clung to a rock ledge overhead and climbed on top of it. His brothers left him in this desolate place. Then they killed a sheep and soaked Joseph’s shirt in its blood. One brother said that they should swear to keep their deed a close secret. All of them took the oath.

The Brothers Lie to Jacob

And they came to their father in the early part of the night weeping. Surah 12: 16

The scene here is dark night, broken by the crying of ten men. The father is sitting in his house when the sons enter, the darkness of night covering the darkness of their hearts and the darkness of their lies struggling to come out. Jacob wondered aloud: “Why this weeping? Has anything happened to the flock?” They answered crying: “0 our father! We went racing with one another, and left Joseph by our belongings and a wolf devoured him; but you will never believe us even when we speak the truth. Surah 12: 17

“We were surprised after returning from the race that Joseph was in the belly of the wolf.”

“We did not see him!”

‘You will not believe us even though we are truthful, but we are telling you what happened!”

“The wolf has eaten Joseph!”

“This is Joseph’s shirt. We found it soiled with blood, and did not find Joseph!”

And they brought his shirt stained with false blood. Surah 12: 18

Deep down in his heart Jacob knew that his beloved son was still alive and that his other sons were lying. He held the blood-stained shirt in his hands, spread it out and remarked: “What a merciful wolf! He ate up my beloved son without tearing his shirt!” Their faces turned red when he demanded more information, but each one swore by Allah that he was telling the truth. The broken hearted father burst into tears: “Nay, but your ownselves have made up a tale. So (for me) patience is most fitting. And it is Allah (Alone) whose Help can be sought against that which you assert. ” Surah 12: 18

The father acted wisely by praying for mighty patience which is free of doubt and by trusting in Allah for help against what they had plotted against him and his son. This scene dims, and the scene opens in the well with which Joseph had been thrown.

Joseph Finds Comfort in Allah

In the dark well Joseph managed to find a stone ledge to hold onto. Around him was total darkness and an eerie silence. Fearful thoughts entered his mind: what would happen to him? where would he find food? why had his own brothers turned against him? would his father know of his plight? His father’s smile flashed before him, recalling the love and affection he had always shown him. Joseph began to pray earnestly, pleading to Allah for salvation. Gradually his fear began to subside. His Creator was testing the young man with a great misfortune in order to infuse in him a spirit of patience and courage. Joseph surrendered himself to the will of his Lord.

Joseph From the Well to Slavery

The next scene shows the wide desert. At the horizon is a long line of camels, horses, and men: a caravan on its way to Egypt. The caravan of merchants halted at this famous well for water. A man lowered in his bucket. Joseph was startled by the bucket hurtling down and grabbed hold of it before it could land in the water. As the man began to haul he felt the load unusually heavy, so he peeped into the well. What he saw shocked him: a man was clinging to the rope! He held the rope tightly and shouted to his friends: “Better give me a hand fellows! Looks like I found real treasure in the well!”

His companions rushed to the well and helped him to pull out the stranger holding onto the rope. Standing before them was a healthy, handsome youth, beaming with an angelic smile. They saw in him a handsome prize, for money was all that mattered to them. Immediately, they clapped iron shackles on his feet and took him along to Egypt, far away from his beloved homeland of Canaan.

All over the Egyptian city the news spread that an unusually handsome, robust young slave was on sale. People gathered by the hundreds at the slave market. Some were spectators, others were bidders the elite and the rich, each one craning his neck to view the handsome specimen. The auctioneer had a field day as the bidding went wild, each buyer trying to outbid the other. Eventually, the Aziz, the chief minister of Egypt, outbid all the others and took Joseph to his mansion.

The Qur’an describes this scene as follows: And there came a caravan of travelers; they sent their water-drawer, and he let down his bucket (into the well). He said: “What a good news! Here is a boy.” So they hid him as merchandise (a slave). And Allah was the All-Knower of what they did.

And they sold him for a low price, – for a few Dirhams (i.e. for a few silver coins). And they were of those who regarded him insignificant.

And he (the man) from Egypt who bought him, said to his wife: ‘Make his stay comfortable, may be he will profit us or we shall adopt him as a son.” Thus did We establish Joseph in the land, that We might teach him the interpretation of events. Surah 12: 19-21

See how Allah the Almighty reveals the substance of this long story from its beginning: And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of men know not. Surah 12: 21

The chains of slavery have closed on Joseph. He was cast into the well, deprived of his father, picked from the well, made a slave, sold at the market, and made the property of this man, the Aziz, the chief minister. The hazards followed in quick succession, leaving Joseph helpless.

Joseph’s Master

What we see as hazards and slander is the first step of the ladder on Joseph’s way to greatness. Allah is decisive in His action. His plan is carried out despite the plans of others and while theirs are still being made. So He spoils their plan, and Allah’s promise is realized. Allah had promised Joseph prophethood. Love for Joseph was thrust into the heart of the man who bought him, and he was a man of no mean position. He was an important personage, one of the ruling class of Egypt.

Therefore, Joseph was pleasantly surprised when the chief minister of Egypt ordered his men to remove the heavy shackles from his swollen feet. He was also surprised when he told Joseph not to betray his trust; he would not be ill-treated if he behaved himself. Joseph smiled at his benefactor, thanked him, and promised to be loyal.

Joseph felt at ease, for at last he was sheltered and would be well cared for. He thanked Allah over and over and wondered at the mysteries of life. Not so long ago he had been cast into a deep, dark well with no hope of ever coming out alive. Next he was rescued, then enslaved in iron shackles, and now he was moving freely in a luxurious mansion, with enough food to enjoy. However, his heart ached with longing for his parents and brother Benjamin, and he shed tears daily.

Joseph was made the personal attendant of the chief minister’s wife. He was obedient and ever-obliging. With his pleasant manners and charming behavior, he won everybody’s heart.

The People’s Feelings towards Joseph

Joseph’s handsomeness became the talk of the town. People referred to him as the most attractive man they had ever seen and wrote poetry about him. His face carried immaculate beauty. The purity of his inner soul and his heart showed in his face, increasing his beauty. People from afar came to the city to have a glimpse of him. The prettiest of maidens and the richest of ladies nursed the desire to possess him, but not once did he show haughtiness or conceit. He was always humble and polite.

Joseph’s Qualities

The days passed and Joseph grew. Almighty Allah said: And when he (Joseph) attained his full manhood. We gave him wisdom and knowledge (the Prophethood), thus We reward the doers of good. Surah 12: 22

He was given wisdom in affairs and knowledge of life and its conditions. He was given the art of conversation, captivating those who heard him. He was given nobility and self-restraint, which made him an irresistible personality. His master soon knew that Allah had graced him with Joseph. He understood that Joseph was the most honest, straightforward and noble person he had met in his life. Therefore, he put Joseph in charge of his household, honored him, and treated him as a son.

Zulaikha’s Feelings for Joseph

The wife of the chief minister, Zulaikha, watched Joseph from day to day. She sat with him, talked with him, listened to him, and her wonder increased over the passage of time.

Joseph was soon confronted (with his second trial). The chief minister’s wife, Zulaikha, could not resist the handsome Joseph, and her obsession with him caused her sleepless nights. She fell in love with him, and it was painful for her to be so close to a man, yet be unable to hold him. Yet, she was not a wayward woman, for in her position she could get any man she desired. By all accounts she must have been a very pretty and intelligent lady, or why would the chief minister have chosen her of all the pretty women in the kingdom? Although she bore him no child, he would not take another wife, as he loved her passionately.

The Qur’an raises the curtain on the scene of this fierce and devouring love on the part of the lady. Allah the Almighty told us: And she, in whose house he was, sought to seduce him (to do an evil act), she closed the doors and said: “Come on, 0 you.” He said: “I seek refuge in Allah (or Allah forbid)! Truly, he (your husband) is my master! He made my stay agreeable! (So I will never betray him). Verily, the Zalimun (wrong – and evil-doers) will never be successful.” And indeed she did desire him and he would have inclined to her desire, had he not seen the evidence of his Lord. Thus it was, that We might turn away from him evil and illegal sexual intercourse. Surely, he was one of Our chosen, guided slaves. Surah 12: 23-24

Joseph’s Feelings for Zulaikha

Commentators are unanimous about her (Zulaikha) intention of disobedience but disagree about his own intention. There are those who say that she tempted him and he tempted her to sin, although he did not follow through with his intent. Others say that she merely wanted him to kiss her, and he attempted to strike her. Yet others say that this anxiety had been there before this incident. There was a psychological disturbance in Joseph when he reached adolescence, which Almighty Allah rid him of.

The safest commentary for us is that there is temptation and resistance in the verse, for He Most High stated: And indeed she did desire him and he would have inclined to her desire…” Surah 12: 24

Abu Ubaidah said that this is a temptation and resistance meaning that she had tried to seduce him; had he not seen the proof of Allah, he would have been seduced. This is in keeping with the infallibility of prophets, as it suits the words which immediately follow: Thus it was, that We might turn away from him evil and illegal sexual intercourse. Surely, he was one of Our chosen, guided slaves. Surah 12: 24

This verse proves that Joseph was an upright worshiper of Allah; it also testifies to his rescue from the authority of Satan. The Almighty said to the devil (Iblis) on the Day of Creation, “Certainly, you shall have no authority over My slaves, except those who follow you of the Ghawin (Mushrikeen and those who go astray, criminals, polyt heists, and evil-doers, etc.)” Surah 15: 42

Zulaikha’s False Accusation

Joseph’s refusal only heightened her passion. As he moved to the door to escape, she ran after him and caught hold of his shirt, like a drowning person clinging to the boat. In her tugging she tore his shirt and held the torn piece in her hand. They reached the door together. It opened suddenly; there stood her husband and a relative of hers. Almighty Allah said: So they raced with one another to the door, and she tore his shirt from the back. They both found her lord (i.e. her husband) at the door. Surah 12: 25

As he opened the door, he saw her husband standing in front of him. The sly woman immediately changed her tone to anger and, showing the torn piece of the shirt in her hand, asked her husband: “What is the recompense (punishment) for him who intended an evil design against your wife, except that he be put in prison or a painful torment?” Surah 12: 25

She was now accusing Joseph of molesting her, to give the impression that she was innocent and a victim of Joseph’s sexual desire. Though bewildered Joseph denied it: “It was she that sought to seduce me.

After the husband had questioned his wife and Joseph, he consulted Zulaikha’s cousin. He was an honest, wise man who listened to both accounts and gave his opinion. He said the proof was in the shirt. If it was torn at the front it meant that he had tried to seduce her, as the torn shirt would then be a proof of self-defense. The husband asked: “And if the shirt is torn at the back?” The relative said: “Then it would mean that she was the one who tempted him.” Surah 12: 26

The shirt was passed from hand to hand, while she watched. The witness (her cousin) looked at it and found that it was torn at the back. The evidence clearly showed that she was guilty. The disappointed husband remarked to his wife: “Surely, it is a plot of you women! Certainly mighty is you plot!” Surah 12: 28

The wise and just Aziz apologized to Joseph for his wife’s indecency. He also instructed her to beg Joseph’s forgiveness for accusing him falsely. Allah the Almighty narrated this incident thus: He (Joseph) said: “It was she that sought to seduce me,” – and a witness of her household bore witness (saying): “If it be that his shirt is torn from the front, then her tale is true and he is a liar! But if it be that his shirt is torn from the back, then she has told a lie and he is speaking the truth!”

So when he (her husband) saw his (Joseph’s) shirt torn at the back; (her husband) said: “Surely, it is a plot of you women! Certainly mighty is your plot! 0 Joseph! Turn away from this! (0 woman!) Ask forgiveness for your sin. Verily, you were of the sinful.” Surah 12: 26-29

Zulaikha is Ridiculed by the People

An incident like this cannot remain a secret in a house filled with servants, and the story spread. Women began to see her behavior as scandalous. They remarked: “The wife of Al-Aziz is seeking to seduce her (slave) young man, indeed she loves him violently; verily, we see her in plain error.” Surah 12: 30

Zulaikha’s Plan to Regain Her Reputation

Naturally their gossip distressed Zulaikha. She honestly believed that it was not easy for any woman to resist a man as handsome as Joseph. To prove her helplessness, she planned to subject the women to the same temptation she faced. She invited them to a lavish banquet. No one so invited would want to miss the honor of dining with the chief minister’s wife; besides, they secretly harbored the desire to meet the handsome Joseph face to face. Some of her close friends jokingly said they would come only if she introduced them to Joseph.

The invitation was restricted to ladies. The banquet began, laughter and mirth abounded. Etiquette dictated that the ladies not mention the topic of Joseph. They were shocked, therefore, when Zulaikha opened the topic. “I have heard of those who say I have fallen in love with the young Hebrew man, Joseph.” Silence fell upon the banquet. At once all the guests’ hands stopped, and all eyes fell on the chief minister’s wife. She said, while giving orders for the fruit to be served: “I admit that he is a charming fellow. I do not deny that I love him. I have loved him for a long time.”

The Women’s Reaction to Joseph

The confession of the chief minister’s wife removed the tension among the ladies. After finishing their dinner, the guests began cutting their fruit. At that very moment she summoned Joseph to make his appearance. He entered the hall gracefully, his gaze lowered. Zulaikha called him by his name and he raised his head. The guests were astonished and dumbfounded. His face was shining and full of manliness and angelic beauty. It reflected complete innocence, so much so that one could feel the peace of mind in the depth of his soul.

They exclaimed in astonishment while continuing to cut the fruit. All their eyes were on Joseph. So it was that the women began to cut their palms absent-mindedly without feeling that they had cut them.

The presence of Joseph at the scene of drama was so effective that blood flowed without their feeling pain. One of the ladies gasped: “Good gracious!” Another whispered: ‘This is not a mortal being!” Another stammered, patting her hair: “This is but a noble angel.”

Then the chief minister’s wife stood up and announced: “This is the one for whom I have been blamed. I do not deny that I tempted him. You have been enchanted by Joseph, and see what has happened to your hands. I have tempted him, and if he does not do what I want of him he shall be imprisoned.”

The Women’s Reaction – Qur’anic

Almighty Allah related the scene of the banquet in His words: So when she heard of their accusation, she sent for them and prepared a banquet for them; she gave each one of them a knife (to cut the foodstuff with), and she said (to Joseph): “Come out before them.” Then, when they saw him, they exalted him (at his beauty) and (in their astonishment) cut their hands. They said: “How perfect is Allah (or Allah forbid)! No man is this! This is none other than a noble angel!”

She said: “This is he (the young man) about whom you did blame me (for his love), and I did seek to seduce him, but he refused. And now if he refuses to obey my order, he shall certainly be cast into prison, and will be one of those who are disgraced.” Surah 31-32

Joseph’s Decision to Go to Jail

He said: “0 my Lord! Prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me. Unless You turn away their plot from me, I will feel inclined towards them and be one (of those who commit sin and deserve blame or those who do deeds) of the ignorants.”

So his Lord answered his invocation and turned away from him their plot. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the AllKnower. Surah 12: 33-34

That evening, Zulaikha convinced her husband that the only way to save her honor was to put Joseph in prison; otherwise she would not be able to control herself or to safeguard his prestige. The chief minister knew Joseph was absolutely innocent, that he was a young man of honor, a loyal servant, and he loved him for these reasons. It was not an easy decision for him to put an innocent man behind bars. However, he was left with no choice. He reasoned that Joseph’s honor would also be safeguarded if he was kept out of Zulaikha’s sight. That night, with a heavy heart, the chief minister sent Joseph to prison.

Joseph’s Time in Prison

Prison was Joseph’s third test. During this period Allah blessed him with an extraordinary gift: the ability to interpret dreams. At about the same time two other men landed in the prison. One was the cupbearer of the king; the other was the king’s cook. The two men sensed that Joseph was not a common criminal, for an aura of piety glowed on his face. Both men had vivid dreams, and they were anxious to have them explained. The king’s cook dreamed that he stood in a place with bread on his head, and two birds were eating the bread. The cupbearer dreamed that he was serving the king wine. The two went to Joseph and told him their dreams, asking him to give them their meaning.

First, Joseph called them to Allah. Then he said that the cook would be crucified until he died and that the cupbearer would return to the service of the king. Joseph told the cupbearer to remember him to the king and to say that there was a wronged soul called Joseph in the prison. What Joseph predicted did happen; the cook was crucified and the cupbearer returned to the palace.

After the cupbearer returned to service, Satan made him forget to mention Joseph’s name to the king. Therefore, Joseph remained in prison for a few years, but he made patience his own, praying to Allah.

Joseph’s Time in Prison – Qur’anic

Almighty Allah narrated: And there entered with him two young men in the prison. One of them said: “Verily, I saw myself (in a dream) pressing wine.” The other said: “Verily, I saw myself (in a dream) carrying bread on my head and birds were eating thereof” (They said): “Inform us of the interpretation of this. Verily, we think you are one of the Muhsineen (doers of good).”

He said: “No food will come to you (in wakefulness or in dream) as your provision, but I will inform (in wakefulness) its interpretation before it (the food) comes. This is of that which my Lord has taught me. Verily, I have abandoned the religion of a people that believe not in Allah and are disbelievers in the Hereafter. And I have followed the religion of my fathers, – Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and never could we attribute any partners whatsoever to Allah. This is from the Grace of Allah to us and to mankind, but most men thank not (i.e. they neither believe in Allah, nor worship Him).

“0 two companions of the prison! Are many different lords (gods) better or Allah, the One, the Irresistible? You do not worship besides Him but only names which you have named (forged), you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. The command (or the judgment) is for none but Allah. He has commanded (i.e. His Monotheism), that is the (true) straight religion, but most men know not.

“0 two companions of the prison! As for one of you, he (as a servant) will pour out wine for his lord (King or master) to drink; and as for the other, he will be crucified and birds will eat from his head. Thus is the case judged concerning which you both did inquire.”

And he said to the one whom he knew to be saved: ‘Mention me to your lord (i.e. your King, so as to get me out of the prison).” But Satan made him forget to mention it to his lord or Satan made (Joseph) to forget the remembrance of his Lord (Allah) as to ask for His Help, instead of others. So (Joseph) stayed in prison a few (more) years. Surah 12: 36-42

The King’s Dream

The scene in the prison closes; a new scene opens in the bed chamber of the king. The king is asleep. He sees himself on the banks of the Nile river. The water is receding before him, becoming mere mud. The fish begin to skip and jump in the mud. Seven fat cows come out of the river followed by seven lean cows. The seven lean ones devour the seven fat ones. The king is terrified. Then seven ears of green grain grow on the river banks and disappear in the mud. On the same spot grow seven dry ears of grain.

The king awoke frightened, shocked, and depressed, not knowing what all this meant. He sent for the sorcerers, priests and ministers, and told them his dream.

The sorcerers said: “This is a mixed up dream. How can any of that be? It is a nightmare.”

The priests said: “Perhaps his majesty had a heavy supper.”

The chief minister said: “Could it be that his majesty was exposed and did not draw the blanket up at night?”

The king’s jester said, jokingly: “His majesty is beginning to grow old, and so his dreams are confused.”

They reached a unanimous conclusion that it was only a nightmare.

The news reached the cupbearer. He recollected the dream he had had in prison and compared it to the king’s dream, and, therefore Joseph came to mind. He ran to the king to tell him about Joseph, who was the only one capable of interpreting the dream. The cupbearer said: “He had asked me to remember him to you, but I forgot.” The king sent the cupbearer to ask Joseph about the dream.

Joseph’s Interpretation of the Dream

Joseph interpreted it to him: “There will be seven years of abundance. If the land is properly cultivated, there will be an excess of good harvest, more than the people will need. This should be stored. Thereafter, seven years of famine will follow, during which time the excess grain could be used.”

He also advised that during the famine they should save some grain to be used for seed for the next harvest. Joseph then added: “After seven years of drought, there will be a year during which water will be plentiful. If the water is properly used, grapevines and olive trees will grow in abundance, providing plenty of grapes and olive oil.”

The cup bearer hurried back with the good news. The king was fascinated by Joseph’s interpretation.

The Dream and Interpretation – Qur’anic

Almighty Allah narrated this incident thus: And the king (of Egypt) said: “Verily, I saw (in a dream) seven fat cows, whom seven lean cows were devouring – and (seven) green ears of corn, and seven others dry. 0 notables! Explain to me my dream, if it be that you can interpret dreams.”

They said: ‘Mixed up false dreams and we are not skilled in the interpretation of dreams.”

Then the man who was released (one of the two who were in prison), now at length remembered and said: “I will tell you its interpretation, so send me forth.”

(He said): “0 Joseph, the man of truth! Explain to us (the dream) of seven fat cows whom seven lean ones were devouring, and of seven green ears of corn, and (seven) others dry, that I may return to the people, and that they may know.” (Joseph) said: “For seven consecutive years, you shall sow as usual and that (the harvest) which you reap you shall leave in ears, (all) – except a little of it which you may eat. Then will come after that seven hard (years), which will devour what you have laid by in advance for them, (all) except a little of that which you have guarded (stored). Then thereafter will come a year in which people will have abundant rain and in which they will press (wine and oil).” Surah 12: 43-49

Joseph’s Innocence Proved

The king was greatly astonished. Who could this person be? He commanded that Joseph to be set free from prison and presented to him at once. The king’s envoy went to fetch him immediately, but Joseph refused to leave the prison unless his innocence was proven. Perhaps they accused him of cutting the ladies’ hands, or of trying to rape them. Perhaps any other false accusation was made.

We do not know exactly what was said to the people to justify Joseph’s sentence to prison. The envoy returned to the king. The kings asked him: “Where is Joseph? Did I not command you to fetch him?”

The envoy replied: “He refused to leave until his innocence is established regarding the ladies who cut their hands.”

The king ordered: “Bring the wives of the ministers and the wife of the chief minister at once.” The king felt that Joseph had been harmed unfairly but he did not know exactly how.

The wife of the chief minister came with the other ministers’ wives. The king asked: “What is the story of Joseph? What do you know about him? Is it true that…?” .

One of the ladies interrupted the king exclaiming: “Allah forbid!”

A second said: “We know of no evil he has done.”

A third said: “He enjoys the innocence of angels.”

The eyes of everyone turned to the wife of the chief minister. She now wore a wrinkled face and had lost weight. She had been overwhelmed by sorrow over Joseph while he was in prison. She boldly confessed that she had lied and he had told the truth. “I tempted him; but he refused.” She confirmed what she said, not out of fear of the king or the other ladies, but for Joseph to know that she had never betrayed him during his absence, for he was still in her mind and soul. Of all creation he was the only one she cared for, so she confirmed his innocence before all.

Joseph’s Innocence Proved – Qur’anic

Almighty Allah said: And the king said: “Bring him to me. But when the messenger came to him (Joseph) said: “Return to your lord and ask him, ‘What happened to the women who cut their hands? Surely, my Lord (Allah) is WellAware of their plot.

(The king) said (to the women): ‘What was your affair when you did seek to seduce Joseph?” The women said: ‘Allah forbid! No evil know we against him!” The wife of Al- ‘Aziz said: “Now the truth is manifest (to all), it was I who sought to seduce him, and he is surely of the truthful.”

(Then Joseph said. “I asked for this enquiry) in order that he (Al- ‘Aziz) may know that I betrayed him not in secret. And, verily! Allah guides not the plot of the betrayers. And I free not myself (from the blame). Verily, the (human) self is inclined to evil, except when my Lord bestows His Mercy (upon whom He wills). Verily, my Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” Surah 12: 50-53

Zulaikha’s Life Afterwards

Reflecting on these verses suggests that she had turned to Joseph’s religion, monotheism. His imprisonment was a great turning point in her life.

After this, the Qur’anic style neglects the story of the chief minister’s wife completely. We do not know what happened to her after she gave her clear evidence. Yet still, there are legends about her. It has been said that after her husband died she married Joseph, and, behold, she was a virgin. She confessed that her husband had been old and had never touched women. Other legends said that she lost her sight, weeping for Joseph. She abandoned her palace and wandered in the streets of the city.

However, the lady disappeared from the Qur’anic narrative at a suitable stage, at the climax of her trouble. Perhaps she lingers in memory longer than if we had known the ending.

Joseph’s High Position

The king informed Joseph that his innocence was established and ordered him to come to the palace for an interview. The king recognized his noble qualities. When Joseph came, the king spoke to him in his tongue. Joseph’s replies astonished the king with his cultural refinement and wide knowledge.

Then the conversation turned to the dream. Joseph advised the king to start planning for years of famine ahead. He informed him that the famine would affect not only Egypt but the neighboring countries as well. The king offered him a high position. Joseph asked to be made controller of the granaries, so that he could guard the nation’s harvest and thereby safeguard it during the anticipated drought. By this Joseph did not mean to seize an opportunity or personal gain; he merely wanted to rescue hungry nations for a period of seven years. It was a sheer self-sacrifice on his part.

Joseph’s High Position – Qur’anic

Almighty Allah said: And the king said. “Bring him to me that I may attach him to my person.” Then, when he spoke to him, he said: “Verily, this day, you are with us high in rank and fully trusted.”

(Joseph) said: “Set me over the store-houses of the land; I will indeed guard them with full knowledge” (as a minister of finance in Egypt. in place of Al- Aziz who was dead at that time).

Thus did We give full authority to Joseph in the land, to take possession therein, as when or where he likes. We bestow of Our Mercy on whom We please, and We make not to be lost the reward of Al-Muhsineen (the good-doers). Surah 12: 54-57

Joseph Meets His Brothers

The wheels of time turned. During the seven good years, Joseph had full control over the cultivation, harvesting, and storage of crops. During the following seven years, drought followed and famine spread throughout the region, including Canaan, the homeland of Joseph. Joseph advised the king that as his kingdom was blessed with reserved grain, he should sell grain to the needy nations at a fair price. The king agreed, and the good news spread all over the region.

Jacob sent ten of his sons, all except Benjamin, to Egypt to purchase provisions. Joseph heard of the ten brothers who had come from afar and who could not speak the language of the Egyptians. When they called on him to purchase their needs, Joseph immediately recognized his brothers, but they did not know him. How could they? To them Joseph no longer existed; he had been thrown into the deep, dark well many years ago!

Joseph received them warmly. After supplying them with provisions, he asked where they had come from. They explained: “We are eleven brothers, the children of a noble prophet. The youngest is at home tending to the needs of our aging father.”

On hearing this, Joseph’s eyes filled with tears; his longing for home swelled up in his heart, as well as his longing for his beloved parents and his loving brother Benjamin. “Are you truthful people?” Joseph asked them.

Perturbed, they replied: “What reason should we have to state an untruth?”

“If what you say is true then bring your brother as proof and I will reward you with double rations. But if you do not bring him to me, it would be better if you did not return,” Joseph warned them.

They assured him that they would gladly fulfill his command but that they would have to get their father’s permission. As an inducement to return with their brother, Joseph ordered his servant to secretly place the purse, with the money they had paid, into one of their grain sacks.

Joseph Meets His Brothers – Qur’anic

Allah the Almighty said: And Joseph’s brethren came and they entered unto him, and he recognized them, but they recognized him not. And when he had furnished them forth with provisions (according to their need), he said: “Bring me a brother of yours from your father; (he meant Benjamin). See you not that I give full measure, and that I am the best of the hosts? But if you bring him not to me, there shall be no measure (of corn) for you with me, nor shall you come near me.”

They said: “We shall try to get permission (for him) from his father, and verily, we shall do it.”

And (Joseph) told his servants to put their money (with which they had bought the corn) into their bags, so that they might know it when they go back to their people, in order that they might come back. Surah 12: 58-62

The Brothers Return to Canaan

The scene dims in Egypt and lights in Canaan. The brothers returned to their father. Before they could unload the camels, they greeted him, then reproved him: “We were denied some supplies because you did not let your son go with us. They would not give us food for absentees. Why would you not entrust him with us? Please, send him with us, and we shall take care of him.”

Jacob became sad and told them: “I will not permit Benjamin to travel with you. I will not part with him, for I entrusted Joseph to you and you failed me.”

Later, when they opened their grain sacks, they were surprised to find the money purse returned intact. They rushed to their father: “Look, father! The noble official has returned our money; this is surely proof that he would not harm our brother and it can only benefit us.” But Jacob refused to send Benjamin with them.

After some time, when they had no more grain, Jacob asked them to travel to Egypt for more. They reminded him of the warning the Egyptian official had given them. They could not return without Benjamin. Jacob agreed, but not before he extracted a pledge from them. “I will not send him with you unless you give me a pledge in Allah’s name that you shall bring him back to me as safely as you take him.” They gave their solemn pledge. He reminded them: “Allah is witness to your pledge.” He then advised them to enter the city through several different gates.

The Brothers Return to Canaan – Qur’anic

Almighty Allah narrated: So, when they returned to their father, they said: “0 our father! No more measure of grain shall we get (unless we take our brother). So send our brother with us, and we shall get our measure and truly we will guard him.” He said: “Can I entrust him to you except as I entrusted his brother (Joseph) to you aforetime? But Allah is the best to guard, and He is the Most Merciful of those Who show mercy.

And when they opened their bags, they found their money had been returned to them. They said: “0 our father! What (more) can we desire? This, our money has been returned to us, so we shall get (more) food for our family, and we shall guard our brother and add one more measure of a camel’s load. This quantity is easy (for the king to give).”

He (Jacob) said: “I will not send him with you until you swear a solemn oath to me in Allah’s Name, that you will bring him back to me unless you are yourselves surrounded (by enemies, etc.).” And when they had sworn their solemn oath, he said: ‘Allah is the Witness over what we have said.”

And he said: “0 my sons! Do not enter by one gate, but by different gates, and I cannot avail you against Allah at all. Verily! The decision rests only with Allah. In Him, Iput my trust and let all those that trust, put their trust in Him.” Surah 12: 63-67

Jacob blessed them on their departure and prayed to Allah for their protection. The brothers undertook the long journey to Egypt, taking good care of Benjamin.

Joseph and Benjamin Meet

Joseph welcomed them heartily, although, with difficulty, he suppressed the desire to embrace Benjamin that arose within him. He prepared a feast for them and seated them in pairs. Joseph arranged to sit next to his beloved brother Benjamin, who began to weep. Joseph asked him why he was crying. He replied: “If my brother Joseph had been here, I would have sat next to him.”

That night, when Joseph and Benjamin were alone in a room, Joseph asked whether he would have him for a brother. Benjamin respectfully answered that he regarded his host as a wonderful person, but he could never take the place of his brother. Joseph broke down, and amidst flowing tears, said: “My loving brother, I am the brother who was lost and whose name you are constantly repeating. Fate has brought us together after many years of separation. This is Allah’s favor. But let it be a secret between us for the time being.” Benjamin flung his arms around Joseph and both brothers shed tears of joy.

A Thief Among the Brothers

The next day, while their bags were being filled with grain to load onto the camels, Joseph ordered one of his attendants to place the king’s gold cup which was used for measuring the grain into Benjamin’s saddlebag. When the brothers were ready to set out, the gates were locked, and the court crier shouted: “0 you travelers, you are thieves!” The accusation was most unusual, and the people gathered around Joseph’s brothers.

“What have you lost?” his brothers inquired.

A soldier said: ‘The king’s golden cup. Whoever can trace it we will give a beast-load of grain.”

Joseph’s brothers said with all innocence: “We have not come here to corrupt the land and steal.”

Joseph’s officers said (as he had instructed them): “What punishment should you choose for the thief?” The brothers answered: “According to our law, whoever steals becomes a slave to the owner of the property.”

The officers agreed: “We shall apply your law instead of the Egyptian law, which provides for imprisonment.”

The chief officer ordered his soldiers to start searching the caravan. Joseph was watching the incident from high upon his throne. He had given instructions for Benjamin’s bag to be the last to be searched. When they did not find the cup in the bags of the ten older brothers, the brothers sighed in relief.

Benjamin is Accused

There remained only the bag of their youngest brother.

Joseph said, intervening for the first time, that there was no need to search his saddle, as he did not look like a thief.

His brothers affirmed: “We will not move an inch unless his saddle is searched as well. We are the sons of a noble man, not thieves.”

The soldiers reached in their hands and pulled out the king’s cup. The brothers exclaimed: “If he steals now, a brother of his has stolen before.” They strayed from the present issue in order to blame a particular group of the children of Jacob.

Joseph heard their resentment with his own ears and was filled with regret. Yet, he swallowed his own resentment, keeping it within. He said to himself: ‘You went further and fared worse; it shall go bad with you and worse hereafter, and Allah knows your intention.”

Silence fell upon them after these remarks by the brothers. Then they forgot their secret satisfaction and thought of Jacob; they had taken an oath with him that they would not betray his son.

They began to beg Joseph for mercy. “Joseph, 0 minister! Take one of us in his stead. He is the son of a good man, and we can see you are a good man.”

Joseph answered calmly: “How can you want to set free the man who has stolen the king’s cup? It would be sinful.”

The brothers went on pleading for mercy. However, the guards said that the king had spoken and his word was law.

Judah, the eldest, was much worried and told the others: “We promised our father in the name of Allah not to fail him. I will, therefore, stay behind and will only return if my father permits me to do so.”

Joseph Meets Benjamin and the Accusation – Qur’anic

Regarding this scene, Almighty Allah said: And when they entered according to their father’s advice, it did not avail them in the least against (the Will of) Allah, it was but a need of Jacob’s inner-self which he discharged. And verily, he was endowed with knowledge because We had taught him, but most men know not. And when they went in before Joseph, he betook his brother (Benjamin) to himself and said: “Verily! I am your brother, so grieve not for what they used to do.”

So when he had furnished them forth with their provisions, he put the (golden) bowl into his brother’s bag. Then a crier cried: “0 you (in) the caravan! Surely, you are thieves!” They, turning towards them, said: “What is it that you have missed?”

They said: “We have missed the (golden) bowl of the king and for him who produces it is (the reward of) a camel load; I will be bound by it.”

They said: “By Allah! Indeed you know that we came not to make mischief in the land, and we are no thieves!”

They (Joseph’s brothers) said: “The penalty should be that he, in whose bag it is found, should be held for the punishment (of the crime). Thus we punish the Zalimeen (wrong-doers, etc.)!”

So he (Joseph) began (the search) in their bags before the bag of his brother. Then he brought it out of his brother’s bag. Thus did We plan for Joseph. He could not take his brother by the law of the king (as a slave), except that Allah willed it. (So Allah made the brothers to bind themselves with their way of “punishment, i.e. enslaving of a thief”) We raise to degrees whom We please, but over all those endowed with knowledge is the All-Knowing (Allah).

They (Joseph’s brothers) said: “If he steals, there was a brother of his (Joseph) who did steal before (him).” But these things did Joseph keep in himself, revealing not the secrets to them. He said (within himself): “You are in worst case, and Allah knows best the truth of what you assert!”

They said: “0 ruler of the land! Verily, he has an old father (who will grieve for him); so take one of us in his place. Indeed we think that you are one of the good-doers.”

He said: “Allah forbid, that we should take anyone but him with whom we found our property. Indeed (if we did so), we shall be Zalimun (wrong-doers).”

So, when they despaired of him, they held a conference in private. The eldest among them said: “Know you not that you father did take an oath from you in Allah’s name, and before this you did fail in your duty with Joseph? Therefore I will not leave this land until my father permits me, or Allah decides my case (by releasing Benjamin) and He is the Best of the judges.” Surah 12: 68-80

Joseph’s Plan

The brothers left enough provisions behind for Judah, who stayed at a tavern awaiting the fate of Benjamin. In the meantime, Joseph kept Benjamin in his house as his personal guest and told him how he had devised the plot to put the king’s cup in his bag, in order to keep him behind, so as to protect him. He was also glad that Judah had stayed behind, as he was a good-hearted brother. Joseph secretly arranged to watch over Judah’s well-being.

Joseph’s plan in sending the others back was to test their sincerity, to see if they would come back for the two brothers they had left behind.

The Brothers Confront Jacob

When they arrived home, they entered upon their father, calling: “0 our father! Your son has stolen!”

He was puzzled, scarcely believing the news. He was overwhelmed with sorrow and his eyes wept tears. “Patience be with me; perhaps Allah will return all of them to me. He is Most Knowing, Most Wise.” A pall of lonesomeness closed over him, yet he found consolation in patience and trusted in Allah.

The Brothers Confront Jacob – Qur’anic

Allah revealed to us what happened at their meeting with their father: Judah said: “Return to your father and say: ‘0 our father! Verily, your son (Benjamin) has stolen, and we testify not except according to what we know, and we could not know the unseen! And ask (the people of) the town where we have been, and the caravan in which we returned and indeed we are telling the truth.

He (Jacob) said: “Nay, but your ownselves have beguiled you into something. So patience is most fitting (for me). May be Allah will bring them (back) all to me. Truly He! Only He is All-Knowing, All-Wise.”

And he turned away from them and said: “Alas, my grief for Joseph!” And he lost his sight because of the sorrow that he was suppressing. Surah 12: 81-84

Jacob’s Request to Find Joseph

The father was deeply hurt. Only prayer could comfort him and strengthen his faith and patience. Weeping all those years for his beloved son Joseph – and now one more of his best sons had been snatched from him – Jacob almost lost his sight.

The other sons pleaded with him: “0 father, you are a noble prophet and a great messenger of Allah. Unto you descended revelation and people received guidance and faith from you. Why are you destroying yourself in this way?”

Jacob replied: “Rebuking me will not lessen my grief. Only the return of my sons will comfort me. My sons, go in search of Joseph and his brother; do not despair of Allah’s mercy.”

Jacob’s Request to Find Joseph – Qur’anic

Allah, the Almighty told us: They said: “By Allah! You will never cease remembering Joseph until you become weak with old age, or until you be of the dead.”

He said. “I only complain of my grief and sorrow to Allah, and I know from Allah that which you know not. 0 my sons! Go you and enquire about Joseph and his brother, and never give up hope of Allah’s Mercy. Certainly no one despairs of Allah’s Mercy, except the people who disbelieve.” Surah 12: 85-87

Joseph Reveals Himself

The caravan set out for Egypt. The brothers – on their way to see the chief minister (Joseph) – were poor and depressed.

On reaching Egypt they collected Judah and called on Joseph, to whom they pleaded: “0 ruler of the land! A hard time has hit us and our family, and we have brought but poor capital, so pay us full measure and be charitable to us. Truly, Allah does reward the charitable.” Surah 12: 88

At the end, they begged Joseph. They asked alms of him, appealing to his heart, reminding him that Allah rewards alms givers. At this moment, in the midst of their plight, Joseph spoke to them in their native tongue saying: “Do you know what you did with Joseph and his brother, when you were ignorant?”

They said: “Are you indeed Joseph?”

He said: “I am Joseph, and this is my brother (Benjamin). Allah has indeed been Gracious to us. Verily, he who fears Allah with obedience to Him (by abstaining from sins and evil deeds, and by performing righteous good deeds), and is patient, then surely, Allah makes not the reward of the good doers to be lost.”

They said: “By Allah! Indeed Allah has preferred you above us, and we certainly have been sinners. ” Surah 12: 89-91

The brothers began to tremble with fear, but Joseph comforted them: “No reproach on you this day, may Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy!” Surah 12: 92

Jacob Learns About Joseph

Joseph embraced them, and together they wept with joy. It was not possible for Joseph to leave his responsible office without proper replacement, so he advised his brothers: “Go with this shirt of mine, and cast it over the face of my father, he will become clear-sighted, and bring to me all your family. ” Surah 12: 93

And so the caravan headed back for Palestine. We leave the scene in Egypt and return to Palestine and the house of Jacob. The old man is sitting in his room; tears have been flowing down his cheeks. He stands up all of a sudden, dresses and goes out to his sons’ wives. Then he lifts up his face to Heaven and sniffs the air.

The wife of the eldest son remarked: “Jacob has come out of his room today.” The women inquired about what was amiss. There was a hint of a smile on his face. The others asked him: “How do you feel today?”

He answered: “I can smell Joseph in the air.”

The wives left him alone, saying to one another that there was no hope for the old man. “He will die of weeping over Joseph.”

“Did he talk about Joseph’s shirt?”

“I do not know. He said he could smell him; perhaps he has gone mad.”

That day the old man wanted a cup of milk to break his fast, for he had been fasting. At night he changed his clothes. The caravan was traveling in the desert with Joseph’s shirt hidden among the grain. It neared the old man’s estate. He gesticulated in his room, and then he prayed a long time, lifting his hands to heaven and sniffing the air. He was weeping as the shirt was nearing him.

And when the caravan departed, their father said: “I do indeed feel the smell of Joseph, if only you think me not a dotard (a person who has weakness of mind because of old age).”

They said: “By Allah! Certainly, you are in your old error.”

Then, when the bearer of the glad tidings arrived, he cast it (the shirt) over his face, and he became clear-sighted. He said: “Did I not say to you, ‘I know from Allah that which you know not.

They said. “0 our father! Ask Forgiveness (from Allah) for our sins, indeed we have been sinners.” Surah 12: 94-97

Jacob and Joseph (PBUT) Meet

The story began with a dream and it ends with the interpretation of the dream. Almighty Allah narrated: He said: “I will ask my Lord for forgiveness for you, verily He! Only He is the Oft-forgiving, the Most Merciful.”

Then, when they entered unto Joseph, he betook his parents to himself and said: “Enter Egypt, if Allah will, in security.”

And he raised his parents to the throne and they fell down before him prostrate. And he said: “0 my father! This is the interpretation of my dream of old! My Lord has made it come true! He was indeed good to me, when He took me out of the prison, and brought you (all here) out of the bedouin-life, after Satan had sown enmity between me and my brothers. Certainly, my Lord is the Most Courteous and Kind unto whom He will. Truly He! Only He is the All-Knowing, the All-Wise. ” Surah 12: 98-100

Epilogue

Consider his feelings now that his dream has come true. He prays to Allah: ‘My Lord! You have indeed bestowed on me of the sovereignty, and taught me the interpretation of dreams; The (only) Creator of the heavens and the earth! You are my Wali (Protector, Helper, Supporter, Guardian, etc.) in this world and in the Hereafter, cause me to die as a Muslim (the one submitting to Your Will), and join me with the righteous.” Surah 12: 101

Joseph arranged an audience with the king for himself and his family, to ask the king’s permission for them to settle in Egypt. Joseph was an asset to the kingdom, and the king was happy to have him remain with his household. Joseph prostrated to Allah in gratitude.

The Death of Jacob and Joseph (PBUT)

Before he died, Jacob advised his children to adhere to the teachings of Islam, the religion of all of Allah’s prophets. Allah the Almighty revealed: Or were you witnesses when death approached Jacob? When he said unto his sons: “What will you worship after me?” They said: “We shall worship your Ilah (God – Allah) the Ilah (God) of your fathers. Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, One Ilah (God), and to Him we submit (in Islam).” Surah 2: 133

Joseph , at the moment of his death, asked his brothers to bury him beside his forefathers if they were to leave Egypt. So when Joseph passed away, he was mummified and placed in a coffin until such a time as he could be taken out of Egypt and buried beside his forefathers, as he had requested. It was said that he died at the age of one hundred ten.

 

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Shuaib (Shuaib) : Stories of the Prophets

Shuaib’s Message

Allah the Almighty revealed the story of Shuaib : And to (the people of) Madyan (Madian) (We sent) their brother Shuaib. He said: “0 my people! Worship Allah, you have no other Ilah (God) but Him. Verily, a clear proof (sign) from your Lord has come unto you; so give full measure and full weight and wrong not men in their things, and do not mischief on the earth after it has been set in order, that will be better for you, if you are believers. And sit not on every road, threatening, and hindering from the Path of Allah those who believe in Him, and seeking to make it crooked. And remember when you were but few, and He multiplied you. And see what was the end of the Mufsideen (mischief-makers, corrupts, liars). And if there is a party of you who believes in that which I have been sent and a party who do not believe, so be patient until Allah judges between us, and He is the Best of judges.”

The Disbelievers’ Threat

The chiefs of those who were arrogant among his people said: “We shall certainly drive you out, 0 Shuaib and those who have believed with you from our town, or else you (all) shall return to our religion.”

He said: “Even though we hate it! We should have invented a lie against Allah if we returned to your religion, after Allah has rescued us from it. And it is not for us to return to it unless Allah, our Lord, should will. Our Lord comprehends all things in His Knowledge. In Allah (Alone) we put our trust. Our Lord! Judge between us and our people in truth, for You are the Best of those Who give judgment.”

The chiefs of those who disbelieved among his people said (to their people): “If you follow Shuaib, be sure then you will be the losers!” Surah 85-90

The Disbelievers’ Destruction

So the earthquake seized them and they lay (dead), prostrate in their homes. Those who belied Shu ‘aib, became as if they had never dwelt there (in their homes). Those who belied Shu aib, they were the losers.

Then he (Shu ‘aib) turned from them and said: “0 my people! I have indeed conveyed my Lord’s Messages unto you and I have given you good advice. Then how can I sorrow for the disbelieving people’s (destruction).” Surah 7: 91-93

Shuaib’s Story – Condensed Version

The people of Madyan were Arabs who lived in the country of Ma’an, part of which today is greater Syria. They were a greedy people who did not believe that Allah existed and who led wicked lives. They gave short measure, praised their goods beyond their worth, and hid their defects. They lied to their customers, thereby cheating them.

Allah sent His Prophet Shu’aib armed with many miracles. Shu’aib preached to them, begging them to be mindful of Allah’s favors and warning them of the consequences of their evil ways, but they only mocked him. Shu’aib remained calm as he reminded them of his kinship to them and that what he was doing was not for his personal gain.

They seized the belongings of Shuaib and his followers, then drove them out of the city. The Messenger turned to his Lord for help, and his plea was answered. Allah sent down on them scorching heat, and they suffered terribly. On seeing a cloud gathering in the sky, they thought it would bring cool, refreshing rain, and rushed outside in the hope of enjoying the rainfall. Instead, the cloud burst, hurling thunderbolts and fire. They heard a thunderous sound from above, which caused the earth under their feet to tremble. The evil-doers perished in this state of horror.

The Disbelievers’ Ignorance

Allah the Exalted stated: The dwellers of Al-Aiyka (near Midian or Madyan) belied the Messengers. When Shu’aib said to them: “Will you not fear Allah (and obey Him)? I am a trustworthy Messenger to you. So fear Allah, keep your duty to Him, and obey me. No reward do I ask of you for it (my Message of Islamic Monotheism), my reward is only from the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists). Give full measure, and cause no loss (to others). And weigh with the true and straight balance. And defraud not people by reducing their things, nor do evil, making corruption and mischief in the land. And fear Him Who created you and the generations of the men of old.”

They said: “You are only one of those bewitched! You are but a human being like us and verily, we think that you are one of the liars! So cause a piece of the heaven to fall on us, if you are of the truthful!”

He said: ‘My Lord is the Best Knower of what you do.”

But they belied him, so the torment of the day of shadow (a gloomy cloud) seized them, indeed that was the torment of a Great Day. Verily, in this is a sign, yet most of them are not believers. And verily! Your Lord, He is indeed the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful. Surah 26: 176-191

 

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Lut (Lot) : Stories of the Prophets

Description of the People of Sodom

Prophet Abraham left Egypt accompanied by his nephew Lot , who then went to the city of Sodom (Sadum), which was on the western shore of the Dead Sea.

This city was filled with evil. Its residents waylaid, robbed and killed travelers. Another common evil among them was that men had sex with men instead of with women. This unnatural act later became known as sodomy (after the city of Sodom). It was practiced openly and unashamedly.

Lot’s Message

It was at the height of these crimes and sins that Allah revealed to Prophet Lot that he should summon the people to give up their indecent behavior, but they were so deeply sunk in their immoral habits that they were deaf to Lot’s preaching. Swamped in their unnatural desires, they refused to listen, even when Lot warned them of Allah’s punishment. Instead, they threatened to drive him out of the city if he kept on preaching.

Almighty Allah revealed: The people of Lot (those dwelt in the towns of Sodom in Palestine) belied the Messengers when their brother Lot said to them: ‘Will you not fear Allah and obey Him? Verily! I am a trustworthy Messenger to you. So fear Allah, keep your duty to Him, and obey me. No reward do I ask of you for it (my Message of Islamic Monotheism), my reward is only from the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists). Go you in unto the males of the ‘Alamin (mankind), and leave those whom Allah has created for you to be your wives? Nay, you are a trespassing people!”

They said: “If you cease not, 0 Lot! Verily, you will be one of those who are driven out!”

He said: “I am, indeed, of those who disapprove with severe anger and fury your (this evil) action (of sodomy). My Lord! Save me and my family from what they do.”

So We saved him and his family, all, – except an old woman (his wife) among those who remained behind. Surah 26: 160-171

Lot’s Wife

The doings of Lot’s people saddened his heart. Their unwholesome reputation spread throughout the land, while he struggled against them. As the years passed, he persisted in his mission but to no avail. No one responded to his call and believed except for the members of his family, and even in his household, not all the members believed. Lot’s wife, like Noah’s wife, a disbeliever.

Allah the Almighty declared: Allah sets forth an example for those who disbelieve, the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were under two of Our righteous slaves, but they both betrayed their (husbands by rejecting their doctrine) so they (Noah and Lot) benefited them (their respective wives) not, against Allah, and it was said: “Enter the Fire along with those who enter!” Surah 66: 10

Angels Come to Meet Lot

If home is the place of comfort and rest, then Lot found none, for he was tormented both inside and outside his home. His life was continuous torture and he suffered greatly, but he remained patient and steadfast with his people. The years rolled by, and still not one believed in him. Instead, they belittled his message and mockingly challenged him: “Bring Allah’s Torment upon us if you are one of the truthful.” Surah 29: 29

Overwhelmed with despair, Lot prayed to Allah to grant him victory and destroy the corrupt. Therefore, the angels left Abraham and headed for Sodom the town of Lot . They reached the walls of the town in the afternoon. The first person who caught sight of them was Lot’s daughter, who was sitting beside the river, filling her jug with water. When she lifted her face and saw them, she was stunned that there could be men of such magnificent beauty on earth.

One of the three men (angels) asked her: “Oh maiden, is there a place to rest?”

Remembering the character of her people, she replied: “Stay here and do not enter until I inform my father and return.” Leaving her jug by the river, she swiftly ran home.

“Oh father!” she cried. ‘You are wanted by young men at the town gate and I have never before seen the like of their faces!”

Lot felt distressed as he quickly ran to his guests. He asked them where they came from and where they were going.

They did not answer his questions. Instead, they asked if he could host them. He started talking with them and impressed upon them the subject of his people’s nature. Lot was filled with turmoil; he wanted to convince his guests, without offending them, not to spend the night there, yet at the same time he wanted to extend to them the expected hospitality normally accorded to guests. In vain he tried to make them understand the perilous situation. At last, therefore, he requested them to wait until the night fell, for then no one would see them.

The Mob at Lot’s House

When darkness fell on the town, Lot escorted his guests to his home. No one was aware of their presence. However, as soon as Lot’s wife saw them, she slipped out of the house quietly so that no one noticed her. Quickly, she ran to her people with the news and it spread to all the inhabitants like wildfire. The people rushed towards Lot quickly and excitedly. Lot was surprised by their discovery of his guests, and he wondered who could have informed them. The matter became clear, however, when he could not find his wife anywhere, thus adding grief to his sorrow.

When Lot saw the mob approaching his house, he shut the door, but they kept on banging on it. He pleaded with them to leave the visitors alone and fear Allah’s punishment. He urged them to seek sexual fulfillment with their wives, for that is what Allah had made lawful.

Lot’s people waited until he had finished his short sermon, and then they roared with laughter. Blinded by passion, they broke down the door. Lot became very angry, but he stood powerless before these violent people. He was unable to prevent the abuse of his guests, but he firmly stood his ground and continued to plead with the mob.

The Punishment

At that terrible moment, he wished he had the power to push them away from his guests. Seeing him in a state of helplessness and grief, the guests said: “Do not be anxious or frightened, Lot, for we are angels, and these people will not harm you.”

On hearing this, the mob was terrified and fled from Lot’s house, hurling threats at him as they left. The angels warned Prophet Lot to leave his house before sunrise, taking with him all his family except his wife.

Allah had decreed that the city of Sodom should perish. An earthquake rocked the town. It was as if a mighty power had lifted the entire city and flung it down in one jolt. A storm of stones rained on the city. Everyone and everything was destroyed, including Lot’s wife.

The Angels Meet Abraham

Allah the Almighty recounted this story: And tell them about the guests (angels) of Abraham. When they entered unto him, and said: “Salaaman (peace)!” (Abraham) said: “Indeed! We are afraid of you.”

They (the angels) said: “Do not be afraid! We give you glad tidings of a boy (son) possessing much knowledge and wisdom.” (Abraham) said: “Do you give me glad tidings (of a son) when old age has overtaken me? Of what then is your news?” They (the angels) said: “We give you glad tidings in truth. So be not of the despairing.” (Abraham) said: “And who despairs of the Mercy of his Lord except those who are astray?” (Abraham again) said: “What then is the business on which you have come, 0 Messengers?”

They (the angels) said: “We have been sent to a people who are Mujrimeen (criminals, disbelievers polytheists, sinners). (All) except the family of Lot. Them all we are surely going to save (from destruction).”

Except his wife, of whom We have decreed that she shall be of those who remain behind (i.e. she will be destroyed).

Condensed Version of Lot’s Story

Then, when the Messengers (the angels) came unto the family of Lot, he said: “Verily! You are people unknown to me.” They said: “Nay, we have come to you with that (torment) which they have been doubting. And we have brought to you the truth (the news of the destruction of your nation) and certainly, we tell the truth. Then travel in apart of the night with your family, and you go behind them in the rear, and let no one amongst you look back, but go on to where you are ordered.”

And We made known this decree to him, that the root of those (sinners) was to be cut off in the early morning.

And the inhabitants of the city came rejoicing (at the news of the young men’s arrival). (Lot) said: “Verily! These are my guests, so shame me not. And fear Allah and disgrace me not.” They (people of the city) said: ‘Did we not forbid you to entertain (or protect) any of the ‘Alamin (people, foreigners, strangers, etc.) from us?” (Lot) said: “These (the girls of the nation) are my daughters (to marry lawfully), if you must act (so).”

Verily, by your life (0 Muhammad), in their wild intoxication they were wandering blindly. So As-Saiha (torment – awful cry, etc.) overtook them at the time of sunrise; and We turned (the towns of Sodom in Palestine) upside down and rained down on them stones of baked clay. Surely! In this are signs for those who see (or understand or learn the lessons from the Signs of Allah). And verily! They (the cities) are right on the highroad (from Mecca to Syria, i.e. the place where the Dead Sea is now). Surely! Therein is indeed a sign for the believers. Surah 15: 51-77

Allah the Exalted also declared: So We saved him and his family, all, – except an old woman (his wife) among those who remained behind. Then afterward We destroyed the others. And We rained on them a rain (of torment). And how evil was the rain of those who had been warned. Verily, in this is indeed a sign, yet most of them are not believers. And verily! Your Lord, He is indeed the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful. Surah 26: 170-175

Lot’s Life After Sodom

The book was closed on the people of Lot . Their towns and names have been erased from the face of the earth. Gone are they from memory. One book was closed of the books of corruption.

Lot proceeded towards Abraham . He visited him, and when he recounted the story of his people, he was surprised to learn that Abraham already knew. And so Lot continued to invite people to Allah, as did Abraham , the patient one who turned to Allah repentantly, and the two held firm to their mission.

 

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Ishaaq (Isaac) and Yaqub (Jacob) (PBUT) : Stories of the Prophets

Issac’s Sons – from Commentators

The Qur’an does not give details of Isaac’s life , but reliable Qur’anic commentators mentioned that when Abraham felt that his life was drawing to a close, he wished to see Issac married. He did not want Isaac to marry one of the Canaanites, who were pagans, so he sent a trustworthy servant to Haran in Iraq to choose a bride for Isaac. The servant’s choice fell on Rebekah Bint Bethuel, Ibn Nahor, who was a brother of Abraham. Isaac married her and she gave birth to a set of twins, Esau (Al-Eis) and Jacob (Yaqub).

Ill feelings developed between the two brothers when they grew into manhood. Esau disliked the fact that Jacob was favored by his father and by Allah with prophethood. This ill-feeling became so serious that Esau threatened to kill his brother. Fearing for his life, Jacob fled the country.

Issac’s Sons – from the People of the Book

The People of the Book said that when Isaac was forty years old, he married Rebekah, Bint Bethuel, during his father’s life. They said she was sterile, so Isaac prayed to Allah and then she became pregnant. She gave birth to twin boys. The first one was called Esau whom the Arabs call Al-Els. He became the father of Rum. The second one was called Jacob, which means Israel (belonging to the people of Israel).

The People of the Book claimed that when Isaac grew old and his eye-sight had weakened, he had a desire for food, so he asked his son Esau to go hunting and bring him some cooked game. Esau asked him to bless the food and pray for him. Esau, a hunter, went out to get his father the meat. Rebekah, overhearing this, ordered her son Jacob to slaughter two goats of his best flock and cook them as his father liked and bring it to him before his brother returned. She dressed Jacob in his brother’s clothes and put goat skin on his arms and neck, for Esau was hairy while Jacob was not.

When he approached his father with the food, his father asked: “Who are you?” Jacob answered: “I am your son.” When his father finished eating, he prayed for his son to be the more blessed brother and to prevail over them and all people, and for Allah to sustain him and his children.

When he left his father, his brother Esau, who had carried out his father’s command, entered. Isaac asked him: “What is this, my son?” He answered: “This is the food you like.” Isaac said: “Did you bring it an hour ago and ask me to pray for you?” Esau answered: “No, I swear I did not,” and he knew his brother had preceded him in this matter and he was sick at heart.

Jacob Leaves His Home – from the People of the Book

The People of the Book said that Esau threatened to kill his brother when their father was dead. They also said that he asked his father to pray for him that Allah make the earth good for his offspring and multiply his sustenance and fruits.

When their mother knew that Esau threatened his brother Jacob, she commanded her son Jacob to go to her brother Laban in the land of Haran and abide with him for a time until his brother’s anger had abated, and to marry one of Laban’s daughters. She told her husband Isaac to command him with that advice and pray for him, and he did.

Jacob’s Promise

Jacob left his family. When night came he found a place to rest. He took a stone and put it under his head and slept. He dreamed of a ladder from heaven to earth. Angels were ascending and descending and the Lord addressed him and said to him: “I will bless you and your offspring and make this land for you and for those who come after you.”

When he awoke he felt joyful from what he had seen in his dream and vowed, for Allah’s sake, that if he returned to his family safely, he would build here a temple for Allah the Almighty. He also vowed to give one tenth of his property for the sake of Allah. He poured oil on the stone so as to recognize it and called the place “Ayle’s House” (Bethel), which means “House of Allah.” It was to be the location of Jerusalem later.

Jacob’s Wives – from the People of the Book

The People of the Book also said that when Jacob came to his maternal uncle in the land of Haran, his uncle had two daughters. The elder one was called Leah (Lia) and the younger one was Rachel (Rahil). The latter was the better and lovelier of the two. His uncle agreed to marry his daughter to him on the condition that Jacob pasture his sheep for seven years.

After a period of time, his uncle prepared a feast and gathered people for the wedding. He married Leah, his elder daughter, to him at night. She was weak-sighted and ugly. When morning came, Jacob discovered that she was Leah and he complained to his uncle: ‘You deceived me; I was engaged to Rachel and you married me to Leah.” His uncle said: “It is not our tradition to marry the younger daughter before the elder daughter. However, if you love her sister, work another seven years and I will marry you to both of them.”

Jacob worked for seven years and then married Rachel. It was acceptable in their time, as described in the Torah, for a man to marry two sisters. Laban gave a female slave to each daughter. Leah’s slave was called Zilpah and Rachel’s slave was called Bilha.

Jacob’s Children – from the People of the Book

Almighty Allah compensated Leah’s weakness by giving her sons. The first one was named Reuben (Robel), after whom there were Simeon (Shamun), Levi (Lawi), and Judah (Yahudh). Rachel felt jealous of Leah’s having sons, as she was barren. She gave her slave Bilha to her husband and he had relations with her until she became pregnant. She gave birth to a son and named him Naphtali.

Leah was vexed that Rachel’s slave had given birth to a son, so she, in turn, gave her slave Zilpah to Jacob . Zilpah gave birth to two sons, Gad and Asher. Then Leah got pregnant and gave birth to her fifth son, Isssachar, and later she gave birth to a sixth son, Zebulun. After this Leah gave birth to a daughter named Dinah. Thus, Leah had seven children from Jacob.

Then Rachel prayed to Allah to give her a son from Jacob. Allah heard her call and responded to her prayer. She gave birth to a son, great, honorable, and beautiful. She named him Joseph (Yusuf).

All of this happened when they were in the land of Haran and Jacob was pasturing his uncle’s sheep, which he did for a period of twenty years.

Jacob’s Request – from the People of the Book

Jacob then asked his uncle Laban to let him go and visit his family. His uncle said to him: “I have been blessed because of you; ask for whatever money you need.” Jacob said: “Give me each spotted and speckled goat born this year and each black lamb.”

But at Laban’s command his sons removed their father’s goats that were striped, spotted or speckled, and the black lambs, lest others should be born with those traits. They walked for three days with their father’s goats and sheep while Jacob tended the remaining flock.

The People of the Book said that Jacob took fresh rods of poplar, almond and plane. He peeled streaks in them and cast them into the water troughs for the goats to look at. The young inside their abdomens were terrified and moved and they were born striped, spotted, or speckled. When the sheep were breeding, he set their faces towards the black sheep in Laban’s flock and put the rods among them. Their lambs were born black. This was considered an example of supernatural powers, a miracle. Jacob had many goats, sheep, beast and slaves. His uncle and his sons faces changed as if they (the sheep and goats) had been stolen from them.

Jacob Accused of Taking Idols

Allah the Almighty inspired Jacob to return to the country of his father and people, and He promised to stand by him. Jacob told his family that, and they responded and obeyed him. Jacob did not tell Laban of his plans, however, and left without bidding farewell.

Upon leaving, Rachel stole her father’s idols. After Jacob and his people had fled for his country, Laban and his people followed them. When Laban met with Jacob, he blamed him for leaving him without his knowledge. He would have liked to know so that he could have made them leave with celebration and joy, with drums and songs, and so that he could have bidden his daughters and sons farewell. And why had they taken his idols with them?

Jacob had no knowledge of his idols, so he denied that he had taken them from him. Then Laban entered the tents of his daughters and slaves to search, but he found nothing, for Rachel had put the idols in the camel saddle under her. She did not get up, apologizing that she had her menses. Thus, he could not perceive what they had done.

Then they sat on a hill called Galeed and made a covenant there. Jacob would not ill-treat Laban’s daughters nor marry others. Neither Laban nor Jacob would pass the hill into the other’s country. They cooked food and their people ate with them. Each bade the other farewell as they departed, each returning to his own country.

Jacob Prepares to Meet Esau

When Jacob approached the land of Seir, the angels greeted him. He sent a messenger ahead with greetings to his brother Esau, asking forgiveness and humbling himself before him. The messenger returned greetings and told Jacob that Esau was riding towards him with four hundred men.

This made Jacob afraid and he entreated and prayed to Allah Almighty. He prostrated in humiliation and asked Him to fulfill His promise which He had made before. He asked Him to stop the evil of his brother Esau. Then Jacob prepared a great present for his brother: two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, thirty milk camels, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys.

He commanded his slaves to take the animals, each drove by itself, and pass on ahead of him with a space between the droves. He instructed them: ‘When you meet my brother Esau he will ask you, ‘To whom do you belong? Where are you going?’ You shall say, ‘They belong to your servant Jacob; they are a present to my master Esau. Moreover, he is behind us.”‘

Jacob stayed behind with his two wives, his slaves and his children for two nights, then continued walking by night and resting by day.

Jacob Becomes Israel

When the dawn of the second day came one of the angels appeared in the shape of a man. Jacob began to wrestle with him. They were neck and neck until the angel injured his thigh and Jacob became lame. When the day was breaking, the angel said to him: ‘What is your name?” He answered: “Jacob.” The angel said : “After today you shall not be called (anything) but Israel.” Jacob asked: “And who are you? What is your name?” He vanished. Then Jacob knew that he was one of the angels. Jacob was lame, and for this reason the children of Israel do not eat the thigh muscle on the hip socket.

Jacob and Esau Meet

Jacob raised his eyes and saw his brother Esau coming. Jacob prostrated seven times before him, for it was their salutation in that time. It was lawful for them just as the angels had prostrated in salutation to Adam.

When Esau saw him, he ran towards him, embraced and kissed him and wept. When Esau raised his eyes and saw the women and children, he asked: “Who are these with you?” Jacob answered: ‘Those whom Allah has given me, your servant.” Leah, Rachel, their slaves, and all the children approached and prostrated before him. Jacob asked Esau to accept his gift and insisted until he did so.

Esau returned and went in advance before him. Jacob and his family followed with the flocks and herds and slaves to the mountains (Seir).

Jacob Builds Ayl

When he came to Succoth (Sahur), he built a house for himself and shades for his beasts. Then he passed by Jerusalem, the village of Shechem, and camped before the village. He bought a farm from Shechem Ibn Hamor with one hundred goats and built an altar, which he called Ayl, as Allah commanded him. He built the altar where Jerusalem stands today and later Solomon son of David (PBUT) rebuilt it. It is in the place of the stone which he had earlier annointed with oil, as was mentioned before.

Dinah’s Story – from the People of the Book

The People of the Book tell a story of Dinah, daughter of Jacob and Leah. Shechem Ibn Hamor seized her and lay with her by force. Then he asked her father and brothers to let him marry her. Her brothers said: “Circumcise, all of you, and we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters for ourselves; but we do not marry with uncircumcised people.” They (the men of the city) agreed to that, and all of them were circumcised. When the third day came and the pain from the circumcision had increased, Jacob’s sons approached and killed them till the last one. They killed Shechem and his father for the evil they had committed against them and for their worship of idols. That is why Jacob’s sons killed them and seized their money as spoils.

Rachel’s Death

Then Rachel got pregnant and gave birth to a son, Benjamin, but she had a hard labor and died after delivery. Jacob buried her in Ephrath (Afrath). The tomb of Rachel is there till the present day.

The Sons of Jacob

Jacob’s sons were twelve men. From Leah there were Reuben (Robil), Simeon (Shamun), Levi (Lawi), Judah (Yahudh), Issachar (Isakher), and Zebulun (Zablun). From Rachel there were Joseph and Benjamin. From Rachel’s slave there were Dan and Naphtali (Neftali), and from Leah’s slave there were Gad and Asher.

Isaac’s Death

Jacob came to his father Isaac and settled with him in the village of Hebron which lies in the land of Canaan where Abraham had lived. Then Isaac fell ill and died when he was one hundred eighty years old. His sons Esau and Jacob, buried him with his father Abraham Al-Khalil in a cave which he had bought. It was said that Abraham died at the age of one hundred seventy-five.

The Prophets’ Last Wish

Allah the Almighty declared in the Glorious Quran: And who turns away from the religion of Abraham (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) except him who befools himself? Truly. We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.

When his Lord said to him: “Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!” He said: “I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists).”

And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was enjoined by Abraham upon his sons and by Jacob, (saying): “0 my sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except in the Faith of Islam (as Muslims – Islamic Monotheism).”

Or were you witnesses when death approached Jacob? When he said unto his sons: “What will you worship after me?” They said: “We shall worship you Ilah (God – Allah) the Ilah (God) of your fathers, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, One Ilah (God), and to Him we submit (in Islam).”

That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.

Qur’an’s Way of Confronting People of the Book

And they say: “Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided.” Say (to them, 0 Muhammad): “Nay, (we follow) only the religion of Abraham, Hanifan Islamic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allah (Alone), and he was not of AlMushrikeen (those who worshiped others along with Allah.)”

Say (0 Muslims): “We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and to Al-Asbat (the twelve sons of Jacob), and that which has been given to Moses and Jesus, and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islam).”

So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them. And he is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.

Our Sibghah (religion) is the Sibghah (religion) of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allah’s. And we are His worshippers.

Qur’an’s Reasoning About Abraham’s Religion

Say (0 Muhammad, to the Jews and Christians): “Dispute you with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord? And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. And we are sincere to Him in worship and obedience (i.e. we worship Him Alone and none else, and we obey His Orders).” Or say you that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and Al-Asbat (the twelve sons of Jacob) were Jews or Christians? Say. “Do you know better or does Allah (know better . . . that they all were Muslims)? And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony i.e. to believe in Prophet Muhammad when he comes, written in their books he has from Allah? And Allah is not unaware of what you do.” Surah 2: 130-140

In another surah Almighty Allah declared: 0 People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Why do you dispute about Abraham, while the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed till after him? Have you then no sense? Verily, you are those who have disputed about that of which you have knowledge. Why do you then dispute concerning that which you have no knowledge? It is Allah Who knows, and you know not.

Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism, – to worship none but Allah Alone) and he was not of the polytheists (i.e. he joined none in worship with Allah).

Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Abraham are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers. Surah 3: 65-68

Allah the Exalted also affirmed: Then, verily! Your Lord – for those who do evil (commit sins and are disobedient to Allah) in ignorance and afterward repent and do righteous deeds, verily, your Lord thereafter, (to such) is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Verily, Abraham was an Ummah (a leader having all the good righteous qualities, or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hanifan (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikeen (polyt heists, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and those who joined partners with Allah). (He was) thankful for His (Allah’s) Graces. He (Allah) chose him (as an intimate friend) and guided him to a Straight Path (Islamic Monotheism, neither Judaism or Christianity). And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous.

Then, We have inspired you (0 Muhammad saying): “Follow the religion of Abraham Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism – to worship none but Allah) and he was not of the Mushrikeen i.e. polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad, those who worship others along with Allah or set up rivals with (or partners to) Allah.” Surah 16: 119-123

 

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Ismail (Ishmael) : Stories of the Prophets

Abraham Leaves Hajar and Ishmael

One day, Abraham woke up and asked his wife Hajar to get her son and prepare for a long journey. In a few days, Abraham started out with his wife Hajar and their son Ishmael. The child was still nursing and not yet weaned.

Abraham walked through cultivated land, desert, and mountains until he reached the desert of the Arabian Peninsula and came to an uncultivated valley having no fruit, no trees, no food, no water. The valley had no sign of life. After Abraham had helped his wife and child to dismount, he left them with a small amount of food and water which was hardly enough for two days. He turned around and walked away. His wife hurried after him asking: “Where are you going, Abraham, leaving us in this barren valley?”

Abraham did not answer her, but continued walking. She repeated what she had said, but he remained silent. Finally, she understood that he was not acting on his own initiative. She realized that Allah had commanded him to do this. She asked him: “Did Allah command you to do so?” He replied: “Yes.” Then his great wife said: “We are not going to be lost, since Allah, Who has commanded you, is with us.”

Abraham invoked Almighty Allah thus: “0 our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley with no cultivation, by Your Sacred House (the Kaba at Mecca); in order, 0 our Lord, that they may offer prayers perfectly (Iqamat-as-Salat), so fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (0 Allah) provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks. 0 our Lord! Certainly, You know what we conceal and what we reveal. Nothing on the earth or in the heaven is hidden from Allah.” Surah 14: 37-38

Hajar and Ishmael – by Ibn Abbas

Ibn Abbas narrated: “The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Ishmael. She used a girdle so that she might hide her tracks from Sarah by dragging it. Abraham brought her and her son Ishmael, while she was suckling him, to a place near the Kaba under a tree on the spot of Zam-zam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Mecca, nor was there any water so he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates and a small water-skin containing some water and set out homeward. Ishmael’s mother followed him saying: ‘0 Abraham! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?’ She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him: ‘Has Allah ordered you to do so?’ He said: Yes.’ She said: ‘Then He will not neglect us,’ and returned while Abraham proceeded onwards. On reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Kaba, and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers: “0 our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House (Ka’ba at Mecca) in order, 0 our Lord, that they may offer prayers perfectly. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (0 Allah) provide them with fruits, so that they may give thanks.” Surah 14: 37

Ibn Abbas’s narration continued: “Ishmael’s mother went on suckling Ishmael and drinking from the water (she had). When the water in the water-skin had all been used up, she became thirsty and her child also became thirsty. She started looking at him (i.e. Ishmael) tossing in agony. She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of As-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. Then she descended from As-Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached the mountain of Al-Marwa. There she stood and started looking, expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody. She repeated that (running between Safa and Marwa) seven times.”

Hajar Sees Zam-zam – by Prophet Muhammad

The Prophet Muhammad said: ‘This is the source of the tradition of the Sa’y (One of the rituals of the hajj, or pilgrimage) the going of people between them (i.e. As-Safa and Al-Marwa). When she reached Al- Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said: ‘0, (whoever you may be)! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?’ And behold! She saw an angel at the place of Zam-zam, digging the earth with his heel (or his wing) till water flowed from that place. She started to make something like a basin around it, using her hand in this way, and started filling her water-skin with water with her hands, and the water was flowing out after she had scooped some of it.”

The Prophet added: “May Allah bestow mercy on Ishmael’s mother! Had she let the Zam-zam (flow without trying to control it or had she not scooped from that water to fill her water-skin), Zam-zam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.”

Mecca is Settled – Told by Prophet Muhammad

The Prophet continued: ‘Then she drank (water) and suckled her child. The angel said to her: ‘Don’t be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.’ The House (i.e. Kaba) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left.

“She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child, as they (i.e. the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada’. They landed in the lower part of Mecca where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They said: ‘This bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.’ They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water and returned to inform them of the water. So, they all came (towards the water). Ishmael’s mother was sitting near the water. They asked her: ‘Do you allow us to stay with you?’ She replied: ‘Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed to that. Ishmael’s mother was pleased with the whole situation, as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people. So, they settled there, and later on they sent for their families, who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (i.e. Ishmael) grew up and learned Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up, and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them.”

Ishmael’s Wives

The Prophet continued: “After Ishmael’s mother had died, Abraham came after Ishmael’s marriage in order to see his family that he had left before, but he did not find Ishmael there. When he asked Ishmael’s wife about him, she replied: ‘He has gone in search of our livelihood.’ Then he asked her about their way of living and their condition, and she replied: ‘We are living in misery; we are living in hardship and destitution,’ complaining to him. He said, ‘When your husband returns, convey my salutation to him and tell him to change the threshold of the gate (of his house).’

“When Ishmael came, he seemed to have felt something unusual, so he asked his wife: ‘Has anyone visited you?’ She replied: Yes, an old man of such-and-such description came and asked me about you, and I informed him, and he asked about our state of living, and I told him that we were living in a hardship and poverty.’ On that Ishmael said: ‘Did he advise you anything?’ She replied: Yes, he told me to convey his salutation to you and to tell you to change the threshold of your gate.’ Ishmael said: ‘It was my father, and he has ordered me to divorce you. Go back to your family.’ So, Ishmael divorced her and married another woman from among them (i.e. Jurhum).

‘Then Abraham stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them again but did not find Ishmael. So he came to Ishmael’s wife and asked her about Ishmael. She said: ‘He has gone in search of our livelihood.’ Abraham asked her: ‘How are you getting on?’ asking her about their sustenance and living. She replied: ‘We are prosperous and well-off (i.e. we have everything in abundance).’ Then she thanked Allah. Abraham said: ‘What kind of food do you eat?’ She said: ‘Meat.’ He said: ‘What do you drink?’ She said: ‘Water.’ He said: ‘0 Allah! Bless their meat and water.”‘

The Prophet added: “At that time they did not have grain, and if they had had grain, he would have also invoked Allah to bless it. If somebody has only these two things as his sustenance, his health and disposition will be badly affected, unless he lives in Mecca.”

The Prophet continued: ‘Then Abraham said to Ishmael’s wife: ‘When your husband comes, give my regards to him and tell him that he should keep firm the threshold of his gate.’ When Ishmael came back, he asked his wife: ‘Did anyone call on you?’ She replied: Yes, a good-looking old man came to me,’ so she praised him and added: ‘He asked about you and I informed him, and he asked about our livelihood and I told him that we were in a good condition.’ Ishmael asked her: ‘Did he give you any piece of advice?’ She said: Yes, he told me to give his regards to you and ordered that you should keep firm the threshold of your gate.’ On that Ishmael said: ‘It was my father, and you are the threshold (of the gate). He has ordered me to keep you with me.’

The Kaba is Built – by Prophet Muhammad

“Then Abraham stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them afterwards. He saw Ishmael under a tree near Zam-Zam, sharpening his arrows.

When he saw Abraham, he rose up to welcome him (and they greeted each other as a father does with his son or a son does with his father). Abraham said: ‘0 Ishmael! Allah has given me an order.’ Ishmael said: ‘Do what your Lord has ordered you to do.’ Abraham asked: ‘Will you help me?’ Ishmael said: ‘I will help you.’ Abraham said: ‘Allah has ordered me to build a house here,’ pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it.

“Then they raised the foundations of the House (i.e. the Kaba). Ishmael brought the stones while Abraham built, and when the walls became high, Ishmael brought this stone and put it for Abraham, who stood over it and carried on building. While Ishmael was handing him the stones, and both of them were saying: “0 our Lord! Accept (this service) from us, verily, You are the All-Hearer, the AllKnower.” Surah 2: 127

Hajar Sees Zam-zam – by Ibn Abbas

Ibn Abbas narrated a slightly different version: “When Abraham had differences with his wife (because of her jealousy of Hajar, Ishmael’s mother), he took Ishmael and his mother and went away. They had a water-skin with them containing some water. Ishmael’s mother used to drink water from the water-skin so that her milk would increase for her child. When Abraham reached Mecca, he made her sit under a tree and afterwards returned home.

Ishmael’s mother followed him, and when they reached Kada’, she called him from behind: ‘0 Abraham! To whom are you leaving us?’ He replied: ‘(I am leaving you) to Allah’s (care).’ She said: ‘I am satisfied to be with Allah.’ She returned to her place and started drinking water from the water-skin, and her milk increased for her child.

“When the water had all been used up, she said to herself: ‘I had better go and look so that I may see somebody.’ She ascended As-Safa Mountain and looked, hoping to see somebody, but in vain. When she came down to the valley, she ran till she reached Al-Marwa Mountain. She ran to and fro (between the two mountains) many times. Then she said to herself: ‘I had better go and see the state of the child.’ She went and found it in a state of one on the point of dying. She could not endure to watch it dying and said (to herself): ‘If I go and look, I may find somebody.’ She went and ascended Al-Safa mountain and looked for a long while but could not find anybody. Thus she completed seven rounds (of running) between As-Safa and Al-Marwa. Again she said (to herself):

‘I had better go back and see the state of the child.’ But suddenly she heard a voice, and she said to that strange voice: ‘Help us if you can offer any help.’ Lo! It was Gabriel (who had made the voice). Gabriel hit the earth with his heel like this (Ibn ‘Abbas hit the earth with his heel to illustrate it), and so the water gushed out. Ishmael’s mother was astonished and started digging.”

Abu Al-Qasim, i.e. the Prophet, said: “If she had left the water, (flow naturally without her intervention), it would have been flowing on the surface of the earth.”

Mecca is Settled – by Ibn Abbas

Ibn Abbas continued narrating: “Ishmael’s mother started drinking from the water, and her milk increased for her child. Afterwards some people of the tribe of Jurhum saw some birds while passing through the bottom of the valley and that astonished them. They said: ‘Birds can only be found at a place where there is water.” They sent a messenger, who searched the place and found the water, and returned to inform them about it. Then they all went to her and said: “0 Ishmael’s mother! Will you allow us to be with you (or dwell with you)?” (And thus they stayed there.)

 Ishmael’s Wives – by Ibn Abbas

“Later on her boy reached the age of puberty and married a lady from them. Then an idea occurred to Abraham, which he disclosed to his wife (Sarah). ‘I want to call on my dependents I left (at Mecca).’ When he went there he greeted (Ishmael’s wife) and said: ‘Where is Ishmael?’ She replied: ‘He has gone out hunting.’ Abraham said (to her): ‘When he comes, tell him to change the threshold of his gate.’ When Ishmael came, she told him the same, whereupon Ishmael said to her: You are the threshold, so go to your family (i.e. you are divorced).’

“Again Abraham thought of visiting his dependents whom he had left (at Mecca), and he told his wife (Sarah) of his intentions. Abraham came to Ishmael’s house and asked: ‘Where is Ishmael?’ Ishmael’s wife replied: ‘He has gone out hunting,’ and added: ‘Will you stay (for some time) and have something to eat and drink?’ Abraham asked: ‘What is your food and what is your drink?’ She replied: ‘Our food is meat and our drink is water.’ He said: ‘0 Allah! Bless their meals and their drink.’

Abu Al-Qasim, i.e. Prophet, said: “Because of Abraham’s invocation there are blessings (in Mecca).”

The Kaba is Built – by Ibn Abbas

Ibn Abbas continued: “Once more Abraham thought of visiting his family he had left (at Mecca), so he told his wife (Sarah) of his decision. He went and found Ishmael behind the Zam-zam well, mending his arrows. He said: ‘0 Ishmael, your Lord has ordered me to build a house for Him.’ Ishmael said: ‘Obey (the order of) your Lord.’ Abraham said: ‘Allah has also ordered me that you should help me therein.’ Ishmael said: Then I will do so.’ So both of them rose and Abraham started building (the Ka’ba) while Ishmael went on handing him the stones, and both of them were saying: “0 our Lord ! Accept (this service) of us, verily, You are the AllHearer, the All-Knower.”‘. When the building became high and the old man (i.e. Abraham) could no longer lift the stones (to such a high position), he stood over the stone of AlMaqam and Ishmael carried on handing him the stones, and both of them were saying: “0 our Lord ! Accept (this service) of us, verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All Knower.” Surah 2: 127

Abraham and Ishmael (PBUT) – the Sacrifice

Allah the Almighty told us of Abraham’s affliction with his beloved son: And he said (after his rescue from the fire): “Verily, I am going to my Lord. He will guide me! My Lord! Grant me (offspring) from the righteous.” So We gave him the glad tidings of a forbearing boy. And, when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him, he said: “0 my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you (offer you in sacrifice to Allah), so look whatdo you think!” He said: “0 my father! Do that which you are commanded, Insha’ Allah (if Allah wills), you shall find me of the patient.”

Then, when they had both submitted themselves (to the Will of Allah) and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (or on the side of his forehead for slaughtering); and We called out to him: “0 Abraham! You have fulfilled the dream (vision)!” Verily! Thus do We reward those who perform good deeds totally for Allah’s sake only. Verily, that indeed was a manifest trial – and We ransomed him with a great sacrifice (i.e. a ram); and We left for him (a goodly remembrance) among generations (to come) in later times. “Salaamun (peace) be upon Abraham!” Thus indeed do We reward the Muhsineen (good-doers). Verily, he was one of Our believing slaves. Surah 37:99-111

Time passed. One day Abraham was sitting outside his tent, thinking of his son Ishmael and Allah’s sacrifice. His heart was filled with awe and love for Allah for His countless blessings. A big tear dropped from his eyes and reminded him of Ishmael.

Tidings of Isaac

In the meantime, three angels descended to the earth: Gabriel, Israphael, and Michael. They came in human shape and saluted Abraham. Abraham arose and welcomed them. He took them inside his tent, thinking they were strangers and guests. He seated them and made sure that they were comfortable, then excused himself to go to his people.

His wife Sarah arose when he entered. She had become old and white-haired. Abraham said to her: “We have three strangers in the house.” “Who are they?” she asked. “I do not know any of them,” he answered. “What food have we got?” Abraham asked. “Half a sheep,” she replied. “Half a sheep! Slaughter a fat calf for them; they are strangers and guests,” he ordered while leaving.

The servants roasted and served a calf. Abraham invited the angels to eat, and he started eating so as to encourage them. He continued, but when he glanced at his guests to assure they were eating, he noticed that none of them had touched the food. He said to them: “Are you not going to eat?” He resumed eating, but when he glanced at them again he found that they were still not eating. Their hands did not reach out for the food. He began to fear them.

Abraham’s fears increased. The angels, however, were reading his inner thoughts and one of them said: “Do not fear.” Abraham raised his head and replied: “Indeed, I am in fear. I have asked you to eat food, but you do not stretch out your hands to eat. Do you intend me evil?”

One of the angels smiled and said: “We do not eat. We are Allah’s angels.” One of them then turned towards his wife and conveyed the glad tidings about Isaac (Ishaaq).

Tidings of Isaac – Qur’anic

Almighty Allah revealed: And verily, there came Our Messengers to Abraham with glad tidings. They said: “Salaam (greetings or peace)!” He answered: “Salaam (greetings or peace)” and he hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf. But when he saw their hands went not towards it (the meal), he felt some mistrust of them, and conceived a fear of them. They said: “Fear not, we have been sent against the people of Lot.” And his wife was standing (there), and she laughed (either, because the Messengers did not eat their food or for being glad for the destruction of the people of Lot). But We gave her glad tidings of Isaac, and after him, of Jacob.

She said (in astonishment): “Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband, an old man? Verily! This is a strange thing!” They said: “Do you wonder at the Decree of Allah? The Mercy of Allah and His Blessings be on you, 0 the family (of Abraham). Surely, He (Allah) is All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.” Surah 11: 69-73